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Quiz

BIO409H5 Quiz: BIO409 Term Test 1 Notes

, Fall 2016
6 pages96 viewsFall

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO409H5
Professor
Angela B Lange
Study Guide
Quiz

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BIO409'Term'Test'1'
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Lecture'1:'Oxygen'Consumption'in'Goldfish'in'Relation'to'Body'Size'and'Temperature'
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Animals'obtain'chemical'energy'from'food:!!
Use!it!to!perform!work,!maintain!their!structures,!reproduce,!etc.!!
Energy'expenditure'varies'with'regard'to:!!
Body!size,!mode!of!locomotion,!reproduction,!etc.!!!
Environment!&!temperature!!
Animals!must!strategize!how/!when!they!want!to!expend!their!E!(pros/cons)!!
!
Rate'of'chemical'E'intake'–'E'loss'='metabolic'rate'(heat'production)'
Metabolism:'sum!total!of!all!chem!rxns!occurring!in!organism.!!
All!E!released!during!metabolic!processes!is!used!to!perform!work,!stored!as!
chem!E,!or!lost!as!heat.!
Can!use!heat!production!as!index!of!E!metabolism!
MR=!energy!expenditure/!unit!of!time!
Calorie:!amt!of!heat!required!to!raise!temp!of!1g!of!H2O!1!degree!Celcius!
Measuring'MR:'useful!to!understand!how/why!animals!are!successful!&!
calculating!E!! costs!of!particular!activities.!Ex.!small!animals!have!higher!MR!
Basal'Metabolic'Rate'(BMR):!stable!rate!of!E!metabolism!measured!in!mammals!
and!birds!under!minimal!envir/physiol!stress!after!fasting!has!temporarily!halted!
digestive!&!absorptive!processes.!BMR=!kcal/m2/hr!
Classification'of'Metabolic'Rate:'
Standard'(resting):'nearest!approx.!to!BMR!'
Routine:'O2!consumed!by!fish!whose!only!movements!are!spontaneous'
Active:!O2!consumed!by!fish!stimulated!to!max!activity'
o Field'MR:'activity!during!normal!activity!as!in!field'
Calorimetry'
Direct:'measuring!heat!liberated,!subject!in!insulated!chamber!w!H2O!
circulating,!determine!diff!in!temp!of!H2O!entering!and!leaving'
Indirect:'measuring!O2!consumption!as!O2!consumed!per!unit!time,!respirometer'
o food!intake,!waste!excretion,!CO2!produced!/!N-waste'
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Figure.'
-!Larger!animals!have!
greater!MR!overall!
-!Small!animals!have!
greater!MR!for!mass-
specific!
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BIO409'Term'Test'1'
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Van’t'Hoff'Equn'
if!you!sub!MR!for!K,!you!can!see!Q10!for!
10!degree!difference!
Winkler'Method'
Gold!Standard!for!measuring!
concentration!of!dissolved!O2!in!sample!
of!H2O.!
Series!of!chem!rxns!terminating!in!golden!chem!associated!w!iodine!
Meas!O2!by!meas!iodine,!determine!amt!of!O2!in!sample!via!titration!
Step!1:!Fix!sample!by!add!MgCl!and!alkaline!iodide!
*!4!molecules!thiosulphate!=!4!atoms!iodine!=!1!molecule!O2!
**!1!mL!0.01N!thiosulphate!=!0.56!mL!O2!
!
Lecture'2:'Adipokinetic'Hormone'and'Locust'Flight'
Nervous'System'Communication'&'Flexibility'
Input!---Relay-->!Output!à!Target!
Neuron'(synapse)'
Neurosecretory/'neurohormones'(in'blood)'
-!fast,!short/!private!message!
-!slow,!long/!non-private!message!
-!synaptic/!direct!transmission!
-!carried!by!blood!flow!to!distant!target!site!
.gfhgfghfh'
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Endocrine'cells:'Hormone!released!from!endocrine!
cell/gland!into!blood!to!affect!distant!target!cells.!
Message!potentially!seen!by!every!cell!in!body.'
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Neurohormones'&'Hormones:'released!in!blood!in!
small!quantities,!circulate!&!activate!receptors!(GPCRs)!
on!target!tissues,!act!as!1st!messenger!in!series!that!
lead!to!response!in!target!tissue.!
!
Insect'Neuroendocrine'System:'neurosecr!cells!&!their!neurohaemal!organs!(storage!
site!&!release!of!neurohormones),!endocrine!glands.!
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Corpus'Cardiacum'(CC):'endocrine!gland-!juvenile!hormone!(development)!
Corpus'Allatum'(CA):'glandular!lobe-!neurosecretory!cells-!adipokinetic!horm!(nutrient!
mobilization),!storage!lobe-!neurohaemal!organ-!neurohorms!from!LNC!&!MNC!
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