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Quiz

BIO409H5 Quiz: BIO409 Term Test 1 Notes

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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO409H5
Professor
Angela B Lange

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BIO409'Term'Test'1'
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Lecture'1:'Oxygen'Consumption'in'Goldfish'in'Relation'to'Body'Size'and'Temperature'
'
Animals'obtain'chemical'energy'from'food:!!
Use!it!to!perform!work,!maintain!their!structures,!reproduce,!etc.!!
Energy'expenditure'varies'with'regard'to:!!
Body!size,!mode!of!locomotion,!reproduction,!etc.!!!
Environment!&!temperature!!
Animals!must!strategize!how/!when!they!want!to!expend!their!E!(pros/cons)!!
!
Rate'of'chemical'E'intake'–'E'loss'='metabolic'rate'(heat'production)'
Metabolism:'sum!total!of!all!chem!rxns!occurring!in!organism.!!
All!E!released!during!metabolic!processes!is!used!to!perform!work,!stored!as!
chem!E,!or!lost!as!heat.!
Can!use!heat!production!as!index!of!E!metabolism!
MR=!energy!expenditure/!unit!of!time!
Calorie:!amt!of!heat!required!to!raise!temp!of!1g!of!H2O!1!degree!Celcius!
Measuring'MR:'useful!to!understand!how/why!animals!are!successful!&!
calculating!E!! costs!of!particular!activities.!Ex.!small!animals!have!higher!MR!
Basal'Metabolic'Rate'(BMR):!stable!rate!of!E!metabolism!measured!in!mammals!
and!birds!under!minimal!envir/physiol!stress!after!fasting!has!temporarily!halted!
digestive!&!absorptive!processes.!BMR=!kcal/m2/hr!
Classification'of'Metabolic'Rate:'
Standard'(resting):'nearest!approx.!to!BMR!'
Routine:'O2!consumed!by!fish!whose!only!movements!are!spontaneous'
Active:!O2!consumed!by!fish!stimulated!to!max!activity'
o Field'MR:'activity!during!normal!activity!as!in!field'
Calorimetry'
Direct:'measuring!heat!liberated,!subject!in!insulated!chamber!w!H2O!
circulating,!determine!diff!in!temp!of!H2O!entering!and!leaving'
Indirect:'measuring!O2!consumption!as!O2!consumed!per!unit!time,!respirometer'
o food!intake,!waste!excretion,!CO2!produced!/!N-waste'
'
Figure.'
-!Larger!animals!have!
greater!MR!overall!
-!Small!animals!have!
greater!MR!for!mass-
specific!
'
'
'
'
'
'
BIO409'Term'Test'1'
'
Van’t'Hoff'Equn'
if!you!sub!MR!for!K,!you!can!see!Q10!for!
10!degree!difference!
Winkler'Method'
Gold!Standard!for!measuring!
concentration!of!dissolved!O2!in!sample!
of!H2O.!
Series!of!chem!rxns!terminating!in!golden!chem!associated!w!iodine!
Meas!O2!by!meas!iodine,!determine!amt!of!O2!in!sample!via!titration!
Step!1:!Fix!sample!by!add!MgCl!and!alkaline!iodide!
*!4!molecules!thiosulphate!=!4!atoms!iodine!=!1!molecule!O2!
**!1!mL!0.01N!thiosulphate!=!0.56!mL!O2!
!
Lecture'2:'Adipokinetic'Hormone'and'Locust'Flight'
Nervous'System'Communication'&'Flexibility'
Input!---Relay-->!Output!à!Target!
Neuron'(synapse)'
Neurosecretory/'neurohormones'(in'blood)'
-!fast,!short/!private!message!
-!slow,!long/!non-private!message!
-!synaptic/!direct!transmission!
-!carried!by!blood!flow!to!distant!target!site!
.gfhgfghfh'
'
Endocrine'cells:'Hormone!released!from!endocrine!
cell/gland!into!blood!to!affect!distant!target!cells.!
Message!potentially!seen!by!every!cell!in!body.'
'
Neurohormones'&'Hormones:'released!in!blood!in!
small!quantities,!circulate!&!activate!receptors!(GPCRs)!
on!target!tissues,!act!as!1st!messenger!in!series!that!
lead!to!response!in!target!tissue.!
!
Insect'Neuroendocrine'System:'neurosecr!cells!&!their!neurohaemal!organs!(storage!
site!&!release!of!neurohormones),!endocrine!glands.!
'
Corpus'Cardiacum'(CC):'endocrine!gland-!juvenile!hormone!(development)!
Corpus'Allatum'(CA):'glandular!lobe-!neurosecretory!cells-!adipokinetic!horm!(nutrient!
mobilization),!storage!lobe-!neurohaemal!organ-!neurohorms!from!LNC!&!MNC!
'
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Description
find more resources at oneclass.com BIO409 Term Test 1 Lecture 1: Oxygen Consumption in Goldfish in Relation to Body Size and Temperature Animals obtain chemical energy from food: • Use it to perform work, maintain their structures, reproduce, etc. Energy expenditure varies with regard to: • Body size, mode of locomotion, reproduction, etc. • Environment & temperature • Animals must strategize how/ when they want to expend their E (pros/cons) Rate of chemical E intake – E loss = metabolic rate (heat production) Metabolism: sum total of all chem rxns occurring in organism. • All E released during metabolic processes is used to perform work, stored as chem E, or lost as heat. • Can use heat production as index of E metabolism • MR= energy expenditure/ unit of time • Calorie: amt of heat required to raise temp of 1g of H2O 1 degree Celcius • Measuring MR: useful to understand how/why animals are successful & calculating E costs of particular activities. Ex. small animals have higher MR • Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR): stable rate of E metabolism measured in mammals and birds under minimal envir/physiol stress after fasting has temporarily halted digestive & absorptive processes. BMR= kcal/m /hr 2 Classification of Metabolic Rate: • Standard (resting): nearest approx. to BMR • Routine: O 2onsumed by fish whose only movements are spontaneous • Active: O consumed by fish stimulated to max activity 2 o Field MR: activity during normal activity as in field Calorimetry • Direct: measuring heat liberated, subject in insulated chamber w H2O circulating, determine diff in temp of H2O entering and leaving • Indirect: measuring O c2nsumption as O cons2med per unit time, respirometer o food intake, waste excretion, CO produ2 d / N-waste Figure. - Larger animals have greater MR overall - Small animals have greater MR for mass- specific find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com BIO409 Term Test 1 Van’t Hoff Equn • if you sub MR for K, you can see Q10 for 10 degree difference Winkler Method • Gold Standard for measuring concentration of dissolved O in sample2 of H O2 • Series of chem rxns terminating in golden chem associated w iodine • Meas O2 by meas iodine, determine amt of O2 in sample via titration • Step 1: Fix sample by add MgCl and alkaline iodide * 4 molecules thiosulphate = 4 atoms iodine = 1 molecule O 2 ** 1 mL 0.01N thiosulphate = 0.56 mL O 2 Lecture 2: Adipokinetic Hormone and Locust Flight Nervous System Communication & Flexibility Input ---Relay--> Output à Target Neurosecretory/ neurohormones (in blood ) Neuron (synapse) - fast, short/ private message - slow, long/ non-private message - synaptic/ direct transmission - carried by blood flow to distant target site g Endocrine cells: Hormone released from endocrine cell/gland into blood to affect distant target cells. Message potentially seen by every cell in body. Neurohormones & Hormones: released in blood in small quantities, circulate & activate receptors (GPCRs) st on target tissues, act as 1 messenger in series that ead to response in target tissue. Insect Neuroendocrine System: neurosecr cells & their neurohaemal organs (storage site & release of neurohormones), endocrine glands. Corpus Cardiacum (CC): endocrine gland- juvenile hormone (development) Corpus Allatum (CA): glandular lobe- neurosecretory cells- adipokinetic horm (nutrient mobilization), storage lobe- neurohaemal organ- neurohorms from LNC & MNC find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com BIO409 Term Test 1 Locust Adipokinetic Hormone (AKH) st • 1 insect neurohormone sequenced & synthesized • Synthesized/released from intrinsic neurosecr cells of glandular lobe of CC • 3 forms exist: AKH I, II, III, w diff amino acid sequences • pGlu-Leu-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp-Gly-Thr-amide (AKH I) • Mobilizes lipid from fat body to increase haemolymph (blood) lipid levels during adult locust flight (ie. during swarming & migration. Lipid’s used as E source by flight muscles. Hormonal events associated with flight in locusts. st nd Octopamine is 1 graph, AKHI 2 . Effects of flight on haemolymph carbohydrate st - used carbs (trehalose) in 1 20min - sugar levels at rest: trehalose= 26.7 ug/ul, glucose= 2.19 ug/ul Events associated with hormone release during flight in locusts. • drop in haemolymph trehalose, CNS releases octopamine (triggers AKHI release). Experimental neuroendocrinology: criteria that need to bes atisfied to prove the presence of a neurohormone/hormone Ablation: remove suspected organ to see deficiency symptoms Replacement: should restore deficiency Purify, sequence, synthesize neurohorm: synthesized substance should have same biological activity of suspected horm (should also restore deficiency) find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com BIO409 Term Test 1 The experiment: Part I: Effect of flight on haemolymph lipid levels Part II: The role and source of AKH Lecture 3: Results: • Hemolymph lipid levels increase w injection of CC extract. A substance in the CC leads to the mobilisation of lipid from the fatbody. o Studies have shown that the CC
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