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Exam tables and review for Final

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Fiona Rawle

BIO152 Exam prep (post-midterm content) Dr. F. Rawle Study Tables and Sample Questions Sample Questions: -Do the textbook questions (focus on the Check Your Understanding questions throughout the text) in addition to the questions below to adequately prepare for the final. Chapter 24 1. Why do traits have to be heritable in order for evolution by natural selection to occur? 2. Transitional forms and vestigial traits have both been used as evidence that species change over time. Comment on the strengths and weaknesses of these two types of evidence. 3. Why is genetic homology the most fundamental level of homology? 4. List the traits that might help some individuals survive or reproduce better than other individuals for each of these organisms: rabbit, turtle, oak tree, bacteria. 5. A pattern of repeated speciation events is often found in island chains. What about islands promotes speciation? 6. Explain why individuals do not change when natural selection occurs. .... Answers: Chapter 25 1. Practice doing calculations using the Hardy-Weinberg equation. 2. Can you think of a situation in which the Hardy-Weinberg expected genotypes could be found even though the Hardy-Weinberg assumptions were not strictly met? 3. Sometimes mate choice is nonrandom, such that genetically different individuals are more likely to mate. This is called outbreeding. What would happen to allele frequencies and genotype frequencies in a population experiencing an outbreeding mating pattern? Chapter 26 www.notesolution.comBIO152 Exam prep (post-midterm content) Dr. F. Rawle 1. Which species definition (i.e., biological, morphospecies, or phylogenetic) would you use for (1) a new fossil species, (2) a well-studied bacterial species, and (3) a well-studied mammalian species? Why? 2. Why does the fact that the seaside sparrow phylogeny shows only two distinct groups suggest there may be more gene flow within those two groups than previously thought? 3. Colonization followed by genetic drift and natural selection has also led to speciation in aquatic organisms and organisms that live at the top of some mountains. Explain how this could happen. 4. Why is genetic drift more likely to be an important evolutionary factor in colonization events than in vicariance events? 5. Has natural selection caused speciation yet in the case of the two soapbug populations? Why or why not? 6. Polyploid mutations are an important cause of speciation in plants but not in animals. Why? Chapter 27 1. Are bat wings and pterosaur wings an example of homology or homoplasy? Why? 2. There are no known fossils o the very first living organisms. Give at least two reasons to explain why this lack of fossil evidence for these first organisms is not surprising. 3. Crustaceans and centipedes have fewer Hox genes than velvet worms or fruit flies do. Based on the phylogeny shown in Figure 27.10, does it look like the Hox genes found in fruit flies were secondarily lost in crustaceans, or were these genes never present in crustacean ancestors? Explain your answer. 4. Why isnt the new genes, new bodies hypothesis sufficient to explain all animal morphological diversity? 5. What might happen if the Earth were to be hit by another asteroid the size of the one that struck 65 mya? Study Tables: also review the tables shown in class and the tables from your textbook. The essence of natural selection can be summarized with two statements (1) NS occurs when individuals with certain alleles produce the most surviving offspring in a population.
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