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Christoph Richter

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344 Key Lineages Echinodermata Bilaterally symmetric as larvaeUndergo metamorphisis and become radially symmetric as adultsAdults all have a water vascular system Adults produce calcium carbonate plates in their skin to form an endoskeletonUnique jaw like feeding structure in their mouths that is made up of 5 calcium carbonate teeth attached to musclesIn many species this apparatus can extend and retract as the animal eats5 MAJOR CLASSES1Feather stars and Sea liliesSessile suspension feeders2Sea starsBodies with ve or more long arms radiating from a central region that contains the mouth stomach and anusThey live on hard or soft substratesPredators or scavengersSponges barnacles and snails are also common preyThey crawl with their tube feetSexual reproduction predominates sexes are separate At least one arm is lled with reproductive organs that produce massive amounts of gametesSome species hold onto their eggsSome species can regenerateleads to potential asexual reproduction3Brittle stars and Basket starsFive or more long arms that radiate out from a central diskUse arms for suspension feeding deposit feeding or capturing small prey4Sea urchins and Sand dollarsSexual reproduction predominates fertilization is external and sexes are separateSea urchinsaGlobe shaped bodies long spines crawl along substratesabHerbivorescCan prevent the formation of kelp forestsdUsing podia they crawl Can also move spines to aid in crawlingbSand dollarsaFlattened disc shaped short spines burrow in soft sedimentsUse mucus covered podia to collect food particlesbUsing podia they burrowc5Sea cucumbersSausage shapedSuspension feeding or deposit feeding with the aid of modied tube feet called tentacles arranged around their mouths345 Key Lineages ChordataAt some point all species in the phylum Chordate have1Dorsal hollow nerve cord2Notochord3Pharyngeal gill slits4Post anal tail3 MAJOR SUBGROUPS1UrochordatesSea squirts live on the ocean oor Salps live in ocean waterExoskeleton like coat of polysaccharide Ushaped gutTwo openings called siphons where water enters and leaves during feedingFilter feedingLarvae swim with the aid of the notochord larvae are only for dispersal do not feed adults are sessile or they oatUsually bisexual external fertilization Sometimes sperm leave and fertilize eggs internallyAsexual reproduction by budding is common2CephalochordatesSeveral intermediate characteristics between invertebrates and vertebratesNotochord retained in adults where it functions as an endoskeletonBurrow into the ground till only head is sticking outBring in water with mouth trap food with aid of slitsLarge blocks of muscle arranged along the notochord Efcient swimmers single sexed external fertilization3CraniatesLong slender bodies aquatic jawlessHagsh have no vertebral columnLampreys have small pieces of cartilege along the length of their long hollow nerve chord Brains protected by a craniumHagsh are scavengers and predatorsthey deposit feed Lamprey are ectoparasitesWell developed notochords that aid in swimmingLampreys are anadromous spend most of the life in the ocean and the swim upstream to mate Fertilization is external and adults die after breeding once Lamprey larvae burrow in and suspension feed for several years until they metamorphisise into freeswimming adults
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