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BIO203H5 (16)

Comprehensive lecture notes for lecture 2

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Angela B Lange

BIO204 Lecture 2 J Animal Nutrition: Benefits and Problems of Complex Molecules - A nutrient is a substance that an organism requires to remain alive. Nutrients may be sources of energy or raw materials required to synthesize compounds for growth and maintenance of cell functions. Water is an essential nutrient to nearly every organism. - Animals may be classified based on the method by which they acquire carbon compounds and energy. Carbon compounds that have high potential energy are oxidized to ATP to form a more readily available store of energy. - Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins supply organisms with energy. Fat is more saturated than carbohydrates and proteins and thus contains a far greater amount of energy per unit mass (aprox. 2X the amount of E per gram) - The average human adult male is composed primarily of water (aprox. 60%). Protein is the second-most abundant molecule category in the body (18%), while fats account for 14% and carbohydrates for about 2%. - Water is a crucial nutrient as it is necessary for nearly all biological functions. Water is a solvent for biological reactions, facilitates heat exchange, lubricates tissues and facilitates passage of food through the digestive tract. - Carbohydrates are the primary energy source for most organisms. Although they provide less energy than fats, nervous tissues can only be supplied with energy by carbohydrates. Sugars are also very important in cell-cell signaling and adhesion. - Lipids are the ultimate energy source for most organisms; they provide twice the amount of energy per gram as sugars. In addition, fats have high satiation values, making organisms feel full more quickly, thus preventing overconsumption. Additionally, fats are major components of cell PM, are solvents for steroids and vitamins, and are excellent
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