Ch. 37 Book Review Guide. Extremely Detailed

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Angela B Lange

Bio204 Ch.37 Water and Sugar Transport in Plants -Stomata are open during the day so that gas exchange can occur between the atmosphere and the cells inside the leaf. -while stomata are open so that gas exchange can take place, the moist interior of the lead is exposed to the dry atmosphere: as a result, large quantities of water evaporate from the leafs surface. -Water loss is a side effect of photosynthesis. -The evaporation can actually be beneficial under some conditions because it cools the plant, just as sweating cools your body. 37.1 Water potential and water movement -Loss of water via evaporation from the aerial parts of a plant is called transpiration. -Transpiration occurs whenever two conditions are met: 1. stomata are open (usually met during the day when photosynthesis is soccuring) 2. the air surrounding leaves is drier than the air inside the leaves (usually met whenever humidity is less than 100%) -plants replace water that is lost from leaves with water that is absorbed by roots. -water moves from the roots to the leaves passively -movement occurs because of differences in the potential energy of water. -Water potential indicates the potential energy that water has in a particular environment compared with the potential energy of pure water. -Differences in water potential determine the direction that water moves. Water always flows from areas of high water potential to areas of lower water potential -Water potential is key to understanding the movement of water throughout the plant. water potential is high in soil and roots but low in leaves and the atmosphere, there is a water potential gradient between roots and shoots. -For water to move UP the plant, the water moves DOWN the gradient. When it does so, it replaces water lost to transpiration. What Factors Affect Water Potential -Isotonic: Solute in cell= solutes outside of cell -Hypotonic: solutes in the cell >solutes outside the cell water flows in cell -Hypertonic: solutes in the cell
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