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Notes for Second Midterm.docx

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George S Espie

Notes for Second MidtermFolding is important since it reduces the loss of function prevents diseases which are associated with missfolded proteins helixit is right handed helix stabilized by H bonds between CO of peptide group n and NH of peptide group n4 36 AA are required for one complete turn The R group points outwards Ala Leu Met Glu Normally found inhelix Pro Gly Ser Thr Normally not found inhelix and are referred to as helix breakerHydrogen bond is between the O at carbonyl group to the H atom on the amid group on the n4 amino acid sheetadjacent chains held together by hydrogen bonds between backbone Stability depends on the number of hydrogen bonds Can be divided into three classesParallelchains run in the same direction One side will have either all N or C terminus R group all point in same directionsBottom Antiparallelchains that run in opposite direction one side will have alternating patter of C and N and R groups will either be facing up or downTopMixedwill contain combination of parallel and antiparallel 510 AA per strand and can have 215 strands Results in formation of either cylinder or barrel shape or flat planar sheets Note that the arrow head points towards the CterminusMotifs and domain are part of tertiary of structure Motif recurring combination of secondary structure in different region of the protein ex helixturnhelix It is described in secondary structural terms The helixloophelix is a Calcium ion binding motif It is able to hold calcium ion because it has negatively charged Asp Asn Thr Zincfinger motif is designed to hold Zn ion It holds the Zn with help of 2 His pointing towards the Cys which holds the Zn atom Domain subunit of 3D structure which describes how a protein will fold into an independent shape One polypeptide can have more than one domains it just depends on how many 3D structure it forms Domains contain secondary structure thus it could also have motifs as part of it Genotype the genetic information that is encoded into the linear system of the nucleotides within the DNA The primary structure of the DNA codes for the primary structure of the protein In Eukaryotes genetic info is segregated into different locations like the nucleus mitochondria and chloroplast While in prokaryotes its present in nucleoid and plasmids which are integrated with cytoplasm Gene is a region of DNA which controls a discrete hereditary trait of characteristic genesis It is physical and functional unit of hereditary which carries information from one generation to next It is an entire DNA sequence necessary for the production of a functional protein or RNA Molecule Molecular viewDNA codes for a message which is translated into an amino acid sequence of proteinThere is a switch which determines when and when not to transcribe the DNAGene sintony is the order of which genes occur on chromosomes and they are used to control cluster of genes along with individual genes
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