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BIO207 term test 2 cheat sheet.pdf

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Fiona Rawle

Syntenic genes – genes located on the same Euploid- # of complete sets of chomosomes, Pseuododominance: recessive allele is unmasked by chromosome;Linked genes (always syntenic) are opposite of aneuploid a deletion that removes the dominant allele on very close together and can’t assort independently Chromosome nondisjunction: inmeiosis I (trisomic homolog, used to map position of genes (deletion (prophase I) 2n+1, monosomic 2n-1), in meiosis II (2 normal, 1 mapping) Chromosomes:recombinant (alleles of syntenic Chromosome inversion: reattachment in the wrong trisomic, 1 monosomic) genes shuffle during crossing over) vs parental Autosomal:Trisomy 13, 18, 21 (Down syndrome) in orientation– one normal, one inverted; formation of (alleles don’t reshuffle) humans are seen inversion loopat synapsis Coupling (CIS) configuration: when wild type alleles Sex chromosome: XO(Turner syndrome) Inversion heterozygotes -probability of crossover are on one chromosome and mutant alleles are on ½ of spontaneous abortion in pregnant carry within loop is proportional to size of loop, there’s another chromosome abnormal chromosome crossover suppression when production of Repulsion (TRANS) configuration: when one wild Mosaicism– result of mitotic nondisjunction in early recombinant chromosome is suppressed, fertility type and one mutant allele are on each chromosome development altered if carrying a very large inversion Recombination frequency (Rf) = # of recombinant Gyandromorph(half female, male) –produced by Types: paracentric – centromere is outside of genes (SCO & DCO) / total progeny sex chromosome mosaicism in flies inverted region, crossing over result in dicentric Linked genes: % recombinant < 50% Uniparental disomy– both copies of homologous chromosomewhich is pulled toward both poles of Genes not linked: % recombinant > 50% chromosome pair arise from the same parent cell and eventually breaks at a random pt, acentric 1:1:1:1 ratio = independent assortment Autopolyploidy: duplication of chromosome sets fragment is lost; pericentric– centromere is within Genetic linkage: parental phenotypic classes > within a species inverted region, crossing over results in both recombinant Allopolyploidy: combining chromosome sets of diff duplicated and deleted regions, yields 2 normal and Completelinkage: 50% each parental gametes species (mechanisms: multiple fertilizations of one 2 abnormal gametes Incomplete: 80% parental, 20% recombinant egg, mitotic nondisjunctions, meiotic nondisjunction) Chromosome translocation: reattachment to Interference = 1 – coefficient of coincidence - offspring can be infertile(chromosome are not nonhomologous chromosome –one normal and one COC = Obs (DCO) Exp (DCO) homologous),fertile(2x # of chromosomes, there is translocated copy, semi-sterileindividuals Exp (DCO) Rf values x total progeny pairing) Types: 1. unbalanced (a piece of one chromosome No interference: F(DCO) = product of F(SCO) - hybrid vigor, rapid growth, increased fruit and translocated to nonhomolog, no reciprocal event), Sickle cell disease– abnormal Hb structure, flower prod, improved resistance to disease 2. reciprocal balanced (pieces of 2 homologs switch, s A autosomal recessive, β is mutant, β is normal,Glu - reduced recessive homozygosity (b/c only metaphase I, is replaced with Valat position 6 of β-globin, carriers produced from homozygous recessive) 2 patterns: alternate segregation(~50%) = 2 normal have reduced susceptibility to malaria compared to - producegene duplication that relaxes natural move to one pole, translocated move to other, only normal selection constraints on duplicated genes this leads to normal gametes= accounts for Gel electrophoresis: southern (DNA), northern Chromosome break leads to partial deletion: can semisterility of translocation heterozygotes; (RNA), western (protein) behave as recessive mut if genes are haplosufficient; adjacent-I segregation (~50%)= one Recombination analysisallows mapping of genes dominant mut if more genes are dose sensitive normal, one translocated move to each pole), because frequency of crossing over is proportional Haploinsufficient: WT allele can’t support WT adjacent-2 segregation (very rare)= doesn’t separate to genetic distance funct
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