Reproductive system.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO210Y5
Professor
K P Patel
Semester
Summer

Description
Reproductive system- Book notes The reproductive system - Is the only system that is not essential to the life of the individual - Does affect other systems - The male and female reproductive organs produce and store specialized reproductive cells that combine to form new individuals - Reproductive organs also secrete hormones that play major roles in the maintenance of normal sexual function Reproductive structures - GONADS- are organs that produce gametes and hormones - DUCTS receive and transport gametes - ACCESSORY GLANDS secrete fluids into ducts - Perineal structures collectively known as external genitalia The reproductive tract - Includes all chambers and passageways that connect ducts to the exterior of the body Male and female reproductive system - Are functionally different - Female produces one gamete per month: retains and nurtures zygote - Male produces large quantities of gametes: produces ½ billion sperm per day The male reproductive system Tester or male gonads - Secrete male sex hormones : androgens - Produce male gametes: sperm Female reproductive system Ovaries or females gonads - Release one immature gamete (oocyte) per month - Produce hormones Uterine tubes - Carry oocytes to uterus- if sperm reaches oocyte, fertilization is initiated and oocyte matures into ovum Uterus: encloses and supports developing embryo Vagina: connects uterus with exterior Pathway of spermatozoa (sperm) - Testis - Epididymis - Ductus deferens - Ejaculatory duct - Urethra (TED- EU) Accessory Organs Secrete fluids into ejaculatory ducts and urethra - Seminal glands (vesicles) - Prostate gland - Bulbo-urethral glands External genitalia Scrotum - Encloses testes Penis - Erectile organ - Contains distal portion of urethra The testes - Egg shaped - Hang in scrotum Scrotum - Is a fleshy pouch - Suspended inferior to perineum - Anterior to anus - Posterior to base of penis Descent of the testes - Testes form inside body cavity adjacent to kidneys Gubernaculum testis - Is a bundle of connective tissue fibers - Extends from testis to pockets of peritoneum - Locks testes in position (near anterior abdominal wall) as fetus grows Descent of the testes - During seventh month: fetus grows rapidly - Circulating hormones: stimulate contraction of gubernaculum testis Each testis: - Move through abdominal musculature - Is accompanied by pockets of peritoneal cavity Accessory structures - Accompany testis during descent - Form body of spermatic cord a. Ductus deferens b. Testicular blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels The spermatic cords - Extend between abdominopelvic cavity and testes - Consist of layers of fascia and muscle - Enclose ductus deferens, blood vessels, nerves and lymphatic vessels of testes - Pass through inguinal canal a. Are passageways through abdominal musculature b. Form during development as testes descent into scrotum - Descent into scrotum Blood Vessels of Testes - Deferntial artery - Testicular artery - Pampiniform plexus of testicular vein Nerves of testes - Branches of genitofemoral nerve - Form lumbar plexus Male inguinal hernias - Are protrusions of visceral tissues into inguinal canal - Spermatic cord: causes weak point in abdominal wall Female Inguinal Canals - Are very small - Contain ilioinguinal nerves and round ligaments of uterus The scrotum and the position of the testes - Is divided into two chambers or scrotal cavities - Each testis lies in a separate scrotal chamber Raphe - Is a raised thickening in scrotal surface - Marks partition of two scrotal chambers Tunica Vaginalis - Is a serous membrane - Lines scrotal cavity - Reduces friction between opposing surfaces 1. Parietal (scrotal) 2. Visceral (testicular) The dartos muscle - Is a layer of smooth muscle in dermis of scrotum - Causes characteristic wrinkling of scrotal surface Cremaster muscle - Is a layer of skeletal muscle deep to dermis - Tenses scrotum and pulls testes closer to body (temperature regulation) Temperature regulation - Normal sperm development in testes: requires temperatures 1.1 * C lower than body temperature - Muscles relax or contract 1. To move testes away or towards body 2. To maintain acceptable testicular temperature Structure of the testes Tunica Albuginea - Is deep to tunica vaginalis - A dense layer of connective tissue rick in collagen fibers - Continuous with fibers surrounding epididymis - Fibers extend into substance of testis and form fiborous partitions, or septa, that converge near entrance to epididymis - Supports blood and lymphatic vessels of testis and efferent ductules Histology of the testes - Septa subdivides testis into lobules - Lobules contain about 800 slender and tightly coiled seminiferous tubules 1. Produce sperm 2.
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