Important Genera for BIO211 Final

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO211H5
Professor
Jessica Hawthorn
Semester
Fall

Description
Important Genera For BIO211 Final 08/12/2011 02:29:00 Morganucondon • Among earliest mammals • Triassic • Insectivore - ate insects and other small prey • Double jaw joint - Dentary: squamosal and quadrate; articular • Heterodont - possess more than a single tooth (two sets of teeth) Eoraptor • Triassic • Close ancestry to therapods and sauropodomorphs • Omnivore • Had both carnivorous and herbivorous teeth Triadobatrachus • Came about in Triassic • Transitional frog • Oldest known frog • Lived both on land and water • Possessed good hearing • Aquatic/Terrestrial • Lissamphibians Igunadon • Jurassic – Cretaceous • Earliest dinosaur fossils found • Herbivore/Terrestrial • Grazer • Teeth similar to modern iguana • Bipedal but probably stationary on all fours • Ornithipod Supersaurus • Sauropodomorph • Sauropod • Includes largest terrestrial of all time, fast-growing • Elongate neck • Lizard hips – saurischian • Fully quadrapedal • Parental care in some • Largest reasonably complete sauropodomorphs • Swallowed stones to aid disgetion – gastroliths • Pneumatic vertebrae – air sacs • Vertebrae of neck is lightly built • Jurassic – Cretaceous • Terrestrial Herbivores Compsognathus • Small therapod dinosaur • Terrestrial Carnivore • Jurassic • Bird-like non-avian dinosaur; similar in size and form to Archeopteryx Allosaurus • Jurassic • Top Jurassic predators • 3 fingers on each hand • terrestrial carnivore • ancestral to spinosaurids Oviraptor • Jurassic • Lizard-hip dinosaur (Saurischian) • Found in Mongolia • Had feathers for temperature control/ mating / scare off predators • Furcula present • Brooding behavior – protected its eggs • Therapod • Terrestrial omnivore Archaeopteryx • Jurassic • Ancient wing – furcula • Long tails • More of a glider then a flyer • Carnivorous • Avian/ Terrestrial Xiphachius • Large predator • Aquatic environment • Cretaceous • Primitive teleosts persuader • Efficient swimmers (strong fin bones) Tyrannosaurus • Large Therapod • Late Jurassic- late cretaceous • Top predators • Reduced arms – two fingers • Strong robust skulls • Might have had feathers at a very young age to control its body temperature • Terrestrial carnivore • Laurasian distribution Eomaia • Earliest eutherian mammal • Early cretaceous – present day • Epipubic bones present – extra bone • Terrestrial herbivore • Can handle themselves (precocious) Smilodon • ‘sabre-toothed’ • Cenozoic = Pleistocene • Machairodontine cat • First true cat (lions, tigers etc.) • Elongate canine teeth = hard to feed • Convergent evolution • Predator • Terrestrial carnivore • Used teeth for stabbing Thylacosmilus • Cenozoic = Miocene – Pliocene • Carnivorous marsupials – not eutherian • Pouched marsupial • Convergence evolution common among marsupials • Terrestrial • ‘sabre-toothed’ Basilosaurus • Cenozoic = late Cenozoic lived in USA, Egypt and Pakistan waters • Aquatic environment • Cetacean • Hind limbs extremely reduced • Human tailbone • Posterior nostrils • One of the first whales Mammut • Proboscidean • Similar to mammoths and elephants • Browsers instead of grazers ( large – cusped malors) • Better adapted to forests • Ancestors to elephants Mammuthus • Probocidean • Cenozoic • Terrestrial • Better suited to colder environments (tundra) • Elongate, curved tusks from u
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