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University of Toronto Mississauga
Jason Head

Ch 1. Earth as a System CHAPTER 1: Earth as a System The Principal of Uniformitarianism: Uniformitarianism: the understanding that there are inviolable laws of nature that have not changed in the course of time , applies to all scientific disciplines Actualism: the interpretation of ancient rocks by applying modern day processes, Expressed by the phrase The present is the key to the past because humans have never observed such events, we must rely on theoretical consideration to surmise what actually happened Catastraphism: floods caused by supernatural forces formed most of the rocks seen on earths surface The Nature and Origin of Rocks: Rocks: consist of interlocking or bonded grains of matter, which are typically composed of single materials. Mineral: naturally occurring inorganic solid material or compound with particular chemical composition, Igneous Rock: formed by the cooling of magma Extrusive Rock: formed on the earths surface Intrusive Rock: formedhardened within the earth Sedimentary Rock: after grains have accumulated as loose sediment, they can become bonded together to make sedimentary rock Metamorphic rock: formed by the alteration or metamorphism of rocks within the earth under conditions of high temperature and pressure (alters rock without making them liquid) Stenos Three laws of Sedimentary rock: 1) Superposition: the oldest strata lie at the bottom and the higher you go the younger the strata gets. 2) Original Horizontality: states that all strata are horizontal when they form
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