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Midterm 1 Prep. These are typed notes on lectures 1-8 (all the midterm 1 material). They include written text and plenty diagrams for nearly every topic covered to make the material easier to understand and visualize. The notes are concise and to the poin

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Danton O' Day

length of double bonds The Human Cell Membranediffers in different phospholipidsBilayer contains lipids involved in cell All cells are surrounded by a cell communication aka signal transductionmembraneoutside more phosphatidylcholineaka plasma membrane inside more phosphatidylserine biomembranedouble layer of lipids in which glycolipidscytoplasmic face is generally proteins are locatedfunctionsnegatively chargedMicelles1isolates cell components from external environment regulates form when lipid amount is low flow of materialscompared to water content2communications interface bw can form at regions of membrane cellenvironment ex instabilityintercellular communicationsLiposomesadhesionbilayered lipid vesicles3compartmentalizes cellular form by sonicating lipids in aq functions ie organelles are all solutionsurrounded by membranesused in drug deliveryin Fluid Mosaic Modelbiologically active cosmeticsconcept that the cell membrane Cholesterolconsists of a continuous fluid steroid lipiddouble layer of phospholipidsflat shape interdigitates bw proteins may be embedded phospholipids stabilizes the integral in the bilayer or associated membraneperipheral with either face present in animal cell membranes cytoplasmicextracellularabsent in bacteria and most plantscarbohydrates link to proteins or Membrane Protein Functions lipids only on extracellular side to membrane transport cell adhesion intercellular comm enzymes channels adhesionform glycoproteinslipidslipidspanning domains allow for Phospholipidsmembrane passes 1 domainhydrophilic polar head groupsingle passhydrophobic nonpolar tail may be linked to membrane via a implicated in uptake of glycolipid or phospholipid anchorcholesterol by endocytosisinteract with other proteins insideaccumulation of signal outtransductionGlycoproteinsmany membrane proteins are covalently linked to sugar residues extracellular face onlyCell fusion experiments prove if carbohydrate component of membrane fluidityglycoprotein is extensive it can be seen using electron microscope ex intestinal epitheliumProteins are not randomly localized they exist in complexes that are localized to specific domains some proteins are restricted to certain sites in the membraneJunctional Adhesion Complexesex in sperm the cell membrane at the head contains different Evolution of higher organisms required membrane proteins than that at the that single cells form multicellular midpiece or tailassociations began with cell adhesion Lipid Raftsmolecules CAMsmembranes are not made up of a Homotypic cell adhesionadhesion of bilayer containing continuous 2 identical moleculesproteins domains there are Heterotypic cell adhesionadhesion of discontinuities2 diff moleculeslipid domains aka rafts also existThese simple associations led to contain diff concentrations of clustering of cell adhesion molecules to lipids such as cholesterolform complex adhesion structuressphingolipidshighly organized adhesion junctions sites where other specific consisting of cell adhesion molecules group for specific moleculesproteins accessoryfunctionsadaptor that allow interactions like Caveolaelittle caves links to intracellular cytoskeletonspecial type of lipid raft which extracellular matrixform distinct invaginations of Cell Adhesion Mechanismsthe cell membrane 1Cells adhere to each other viastable cholesterolrich Junctional adhesion membrane domains mechanisms JAMscontaining the structuretight junctions adherens specific protein caveolin on junctions desmosomes gap cytoplasmic sidejunctions
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