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Short Answer Test 4 full.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga

L0301 MW 34 1Describe in order the first 4 levels of Maslows Hierarchy of Needs 2 marks 12 mark each ii physiological needshunger thirst sexiiii safety needsshelterhousing moneyiiiiiilove or belongingnessintimacy family support friendsivivesteemselfworth selfefficacy selfrespect respect from others 2Explain the organizational effects of androgens on the developing fetus 2 marks High levels of androgens in the 3monthold fetus will lead to physical and personality attributes that correspond to a masculine or male gender In the absence of these androgens natures tendency is to create a female or feminine traits3What are some of the gender differences found in patterns of sexual activity and how do evolutionary psychologists explain them 3 marksmales generally show a greater interest in sex initiate sex more often have more sexual partners and engage in more sex with partners they barely know than women because males can have thousands of children it is in their best interest for reproductive success to have as many partners as possible whereas females are very limited in the number of children they can have thus they must be very selective about who they mate with 4Identify and give an example of the 3 components of emotions 3 marksphysiological arousal eg increased heart rate galvanic skin response autonomic activity etc subjective experience eg fear of pain or death or anticipation of pleasure etc behavioral expression eg scream cry laugh make a facial expression etc 5Explain the crosssectional method of study and state when it is useful and when it is not useful 3 marksthe crosssectional method compares groups of different ages at the same time it is useful for assessing age differencesit is not useful for assessing age changes 66 List the 3 types of infantcaregiver attachment discussed in the lectures 3 marks 1 secure 2 anxiousambivalent 3 avoidant 7According to Piaget define conservation and state the stage of cognitive development where children learn this ability 2 marksConservation is the understanding that the basic properties of an object are constant even if the object changes shape Piaget believed that children mastered conservation in the concrete operational period 8In what stage of Kohlbergs moral development would we find right and wrong determined by abstract ethical principles of equality and justice1 markpost conventional 9What is Eriksons fifth stage of personality development 1 markidentity vs confusion 10 Define and provide an example for the following defense mechanisms Projection Reaction Formation and Displacement 3 marksProjection is attributing your own unacceptable impulses to others eg you believe that your friend is mad at you when really it is you who are mad at your friendReaction Formation a person converts an unacceptable impulse into the opposite impulse eg a person attracted to the same sex may express open hostility to homosexualsDisplacement diverting emotional reactions from their original source to a substitute target eg a man who is mad at his boss comes home and yells at his wife 11 According to Ellis Rational Emotive Therapy list four positive and four negative emotions that would be considered appropriate 4 marks 12 mark eachPositive pleasure joy love social interestNegative sorrow regret frustration displeasure 12According to Eysenck what are the three main traits of personality 3 marksextraversion neuroticism and psychoticism
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