Cla237 Exam Review.docx

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Department
Classics
Course
CLA237H5
Professor
Lisa Trentin
Semester
Winter

Description
CLA237 Exam Review th Homer (8 BC) - One of the oldest known Greek epic poets. Nothing definite is known about him (birth, life, death) - Homeric question: Was there actually a Homer or was it a group of people. - Famous works Illiad and Odyssey which kind of depicted Greek Bronze age and may have preserved fragments of Mycenaean past. (Homeric Society) [Controversial] - He is important because it gives readers a more in depth analysis on the Greeks. Specifically the Greek and Trojan War. - Shows readers the attitudes and beliefs of Greeks during homers time which also lets us understand Greek morals and values. th Lycurgus (7 BC) - Legendary or Historical? (Based on Plutarch’s Life of Lycurgus) - Creator of the constitution of Sparta (A lawgiver) - He is an important historical figure as it gives readers an insight into his morals and his action of establishing a military-oriented reformation unto the Spartans - Equality, Military fitness and austerity - He is often referred to by many ancient historians, specifically Plato. th Leonidas (5 BC) - Greek hero-king of Sparta who was believed to be a descendant of Heracles. - Most notable for his leadership at the Battle of Thermopylae against Xerxes and his army of Persians - Leonidas led a relatively small group against thousands of Persians - He is and will always be a symbol of heroism and resistance - Many ancient historians such as Plutarch inform readers about the heroisms of Leonidas Darius (6 BC) - King of the Persians - It was the first Persian invasion of Greece - Wanted to punish Athens and Eretria for their aid in Ionian Revolt - Sent ambassadors across Greece for earth and water (Athens and Sparta rejected) - Heavily attacked Eretria Xerxes (6 BC) - King of the Persians - Second Persian invasion of Greece - Battle of Thermopylae (Victory) - Battle of Salamis (Defeat) Draco (7 BC) - Allegedly the first legislator of Athens CLA237 Exam Review - Replaced oral law with written law code - Created the first ‘constitution’ of Athens - Laws were available to all citizens (intended to reduce arbitrary whims of aristocracy) - Draconian law was known for its sever and harsh punishments even for minor offenses Solon (6 BC) - Important reformer and lawgiver of early Athens - Organized Athenian citizens into property classes - Allowed all classes the right to vote in assembly and law-courts - Abolished enslavement for debt – release of all persons who had been enslaved Cleisthenes (6 BC) - Initiator of democracy in Athens - Father of Athenian Democracy - divided citizens into 10 tribes based on region - Created an assembly, 1 man 1 vote - Council of 500 (From each tribe) - Introduced Ostracism (vote to kick) - Expanded law courts – jurors became paid th Pericles (5 BC) - Influential Athenian statesman, orator and general - ‘First citizen of Athens’ - Age of Pericles (brought prosperity and stability) - Law of Citizens (both parents must be citizens to be a citizen) - Major building programs Pythagoras (6 BC)h - Greek philosopher and mathematician who found the movement of Pythagoreanism (systems of beliefs which had a foundation on mathematics and mystics) Pythagoreans cared about structure and ordering of things - Known for creating the Pythagorean theorem (mathematics proves the world is an ordered kosmos - His philosophy highlighted differences between gods and men. Human soul is spark of divinity – transferable through reincarnation Socrates (5 BC) - Founders of Western Philosophy - Known for his “Socratic method” where one asks and answers questions to stimulate critical thinking and illuminate ideas. (Key moral concepts of good and justice) - Critics state Socrates was in opposition to Athenian democracy and praised the regime of Sparta. CLA237 Exam Review - He was sentenced to death for failure to acknowledge the gods and introducing new deities. He did not flee due to his philosophy on justice - Plato is credited with informing readers about him th Sappho (7 BC) - Female Greek poet - Made a school for girls that taught music, poetry and dance - Considered the tenth muse (ranked equal to Homer) - Poems often referred to love between women and girls. Hymns to deities, wedding songs, odes to her brother Polykleitos (5 BC) - Greek sculptor who is recognized as one of the most important ones during classical antiquity - Known for creating the classical Greek style of sculpture - Emphasis on posture where one leg placed more weight than the other (which was a source of his fame) - Focused on artistic perfection (General aim was for clarity, balance and completeness) Praxiteles (4 BC) - Famous Greek sculptor - First to sculpt the nude female form (specifically the goddess Venus) - Pictures of his sculptures were engraved on Roman coins - Shows a much more humanizing form of gods Aeschylus (6 BC)h - One of the first Greek Playwrights - Father of Tragedy - Only 7 of 70-90 plays survived. Famous for ‘The Persians’ (Wars specifically Salamis) - Known for magnitude of problems which he presents with visual imagery which made their significance penetrate beyond the mind into most profound emotions th Sophocles (5 BC) - Most successful of three great C5 playwrights - Wrote more than 120 plays and one 20 times - Ex. Oedipus the King, Electra - Increased number of actors from 2 to 3, scene painting, character development Euripedes (5 BC)h - One of the greatest three playwrights - More of his work survived than any other C5 playwright - Increased chorus members to 15, sympathy towards marginalized groups - Play questions religion, Athenian attitude towards woman, brutality unleashed by war CLA237 Exam Review
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