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Communication, Culture and Technology
Rhonda Mc Ewen

Media inAncient Empires From Stone to Papyrus - Egyptian civilization showed a shift from monarchy to democracy organization and the basis of communication also showed a changed from stone to pyramids - Papyrus sheets dated from the first dynasty and inscribed dated from the fifth dynasty  2680-2540 B.C. or 2750-2625 B.C. Papyrus Technology - Writing medium was extremely light - Made from plant Cyprus papyrus  Restricted to the Nile delta  Manufactured into writing material near the marshes where it was found - How was it made?  The stems are cut into suitable lengths and the green rind stripped off  Cut into thick strips and laid parallel to each other, overlapped on absorbent cloth  Similar layer is laid above and across them and the whole was covered by another cloth  Hammered by a mallet for two hours and the sheets are welded into single mass that was pressed and dried  Fastened to each other to make rolls - Brushes made from Funcus maritimus which was used for writing  Lengths ranged from 6 to 16 inches  Diameters ranged from 1/16 to 1/10 of inches Thought Gained Lightness - Writing on stone was characterized by straightness or circularity of line, rectangularity of form and an upright position, whereas writing on papyrus permitted cursive forms suited to rapid writing - “By escaping from the heavy medium of stone” tough gained lightness The Organization of Scribes - Writing had been restricted to governmental, fiscal, magical, and religious purposes - With the growth of papyrus writing and reading grew as well and became more efficient - Scribes and officials  Charged with the collection and administration of revenues, rents and tributes  Peasants became members of civil service and prepared accounts  2000 B.C. - Central administration employed an army scribes, literacy was valued as wealth and social (rank) - Becomes restricted as a privilege profession Effects of Writing and Equality New Religions - Writing spread after the democratic revolution - Ra worship  Purely political - Osiris  The god of the Nile  Good being slain for the salvation of men  The ancestral king and model for his son Horus - Isis  The magician  Codes of law  Ruled when Osiris was conquering the world Magic and Writing - Osiris was served by Troth as vizier, sacred scribe, and administrator - Troth became the inventor of magic writings - Osiris became the center of a popular and priestly literature to instruct people in the divine rights and duties - Religion and magic became independent Redistribution of Power - The king’s devotion created a great wave of faith among people  Ritual made him appoint a proxy to act as prophet  The worship of Ra and celestial gods was limited to priests and temples  Acult supplied the needs of living images in statues in the temples Effects of Change Invasion - Invaded with the sword and the bow and long-range weapons  Egyptian were dependent on battle axe and dagger - Syrian Semitic people under the Hyksos or Shepherd Kings captured and held Egypt from 1660 to 1580 B.C. Cultural Resistance - Conquerors adopted hieroglyphic writing and Egyptian customs - Complexity enabled to resist and expel the invaders - 1580 B.C. Nile Valley was liberated - 1478 B.C. Thutmose III gave a blow to Hyksos’power - New Theban Kingdom was established (1580-1345 B.C.) Priests, Property, and Power - Priests  New Kingdoms, the Pharaohs at Thebes resumed their sovereign rights, taken possession of the goods of the temples - Property  Monarchical centralization was accompanied by religious centralization - Power  Success of war in imperial expansion  Priests became established in territorial property and assumed increasing influences Magic and Medicine - Magic  Thoth- god of magic  Regarded as potent in the resistance malicious spirits - Medicine  2200 B.C. Surgery had advance The City- States of Sumer - Measure time and to predict the floods of the Nile became the basis of power Sumer was a land of small city states in which the chief priest of the temple was the direct representative of the god - Suggested that writing was invested in Sumer to keep tallies of mathematics Clay and Cuneiform - Clay was found in Babylonia andAssyria was used for making brick and as a medium in writing - Clay was kneaded into biscuits or tablets and it was important to write in speed and accuracy - Economy of effort demanded a reduction in the number of strokes and pictorial writing disappeared “The gap between picture and word is bridged” - cuneiform writing was characterized by triangles and the massing of parallel lines - Pictographic expression became inadequate for writing of connected religious or historical texts and many signs were taken to represent syllables - 2900 B.C. use of script and the use of sign had been fully developed - 2825 B.C. logical position in the sentence had been established - Seals were served as stamp signatures on contracts concerning property and ownership - Sign were added to the pictures (2,000) - 2900 B.C. reduced the signs to 600 and 100 represented as vowels - Idea had not fully developed to the symbol of a word or syllable Clay and Social Organization Religious Power - The art of writing was controlled by priests, scribes, teachers, and judges, the religious point of view in general knowledge and in legal decisions was assumed - Every act of civil life was a matter of law - Growth of temples and an extension in the power of the cult enhanced the power and authority of priests - Wealth and power in hands of the priests and the temple organization which accompanied the development of mathematics and writing - The control of religion over writing and education neglect technological change and military strength Music and the Mind Machine Cognitive Scientists - The word mind refers to thoughts, hopes, desires, memories, beliefs, and experiences - The brain is like a computer’s CPU, the mind is like the programs Dualism - Rene Descartes wrote that the mind and the brain are two entirely separate things - Mind preexisted before you were born - The brain is the instrument of the mind Illusion - Most scientists and contemporary philosophers believe that the brain and the mind are two parts of the same thing Computer - Prevailing the view of the brain as a computer - Neurons perform computations on information and combine their computations in ways that lead to thoughts, decisions, perceptions, and ultimately consciousness Locations - Personality and neural structures is vague and quite general - “patience” region of the brain, nor the “jealousy” or “generous” regions is difficult to locate Brain - Divided into four lobes Frontal - Planning and self-control - Making sense out of dense and jumbled signals that our senses receive – “perceptual organization” Temporal - Hearing and memory Parietal - Motor movement and spatial skill Occipital - Vision Cerebellum - Involved with emotions and planning movements Oldest part of our brain - Animals like reptiles that lack the “higher” brain region still have a cerebellum Music - The brain uses functional segregation for music processing - Analyze specific aspects of the musical signals like pitch, tempo, timbre - Analyzing sounds, understanding speech Listening to Music - Starts with subcortical (below the cortex), cochlear nuclei, the brain stem, the cerebellum and moves up auditory cortices on both side of the brain - Tapping along with music involves the cerebellum’s timing circuits - Performing music involves the frontal lobes  Frontal lobes is also used for the planning of behavior also the motor cortex - Reading music involves the visual cortex in the back of your head in the occipital lobe - Temporal and frontal lobes is also involved for listening or recalling lyrics - The emotions we experience in response to the music regions of the cerebellar is used - The brain has capacity for reorganization and this ability is called neuroplasticity  Processing center for important metal functions actually move other regions after trauma or brain damage Complexity of the Brain (Neurons) - One hundred billion (100,000,000,000) neurons - Each neuron is connected to other neurons - As the number of neurons increases, the number of possible connections grows Interpretation of Sound - Car horns with danger or attention - Abrupt, short, loud sounds interpreted by animals as alerts - Different sounds have different emotional shadings Sensory Perception Creates mental images in our minds - Illusion - Ex. the flat earth  The intuition that our senses give us an undistorted view of the world  Our perceptual system is supposed to distort the world we see and hear  We interact with the world with our senses The Higher Thought - Center for higher thought mostly in the frontal cortex - Receive these updates, they are working hard to predict what will come next in the music  What has already come before in the piece of music we’re hearing  What we remember will come next if the music is familiar  What we expect will come next if the music is familiar  Any additional information we’ve been given, such as a summary of the music that we’ve read, a sudden movement by a performer, or a nudge by the person sitting next to us Brain faces Three Difficulties - The information arriving at the sensory receptors is undifferentiated - The information is ambiguous- diff
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