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CCT200H5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Intercultural Communication, Foreign Worker, Melting Pot

Communication, Culture and Technology
Course Code
Gail Benick
Study Guide

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CCT200: Final Exam Notes
Intercultural communication: Field of study which focuses on interplay between
culture and communication.
- Ways in which cultural differences influence communication
- Can be viewed in macro and micro
Reasons to Study Intercultural Communication
a) Demographic Imperative: (where people live)
- Knowing target market to understand different clusters of different cultures in
different areas.
- Changing immigration patters
- Increase in diversity
- Relationship of host society to new immigrants
b) Economic Imperative: “globalization”
- Facing issues of intercultural communication (imports/exports)
c) Technological Imperative: Global village
- Electronically mediated Communication
- Access of technology in areas of the world. (digital divide)
d) Ethical Imperative:
- ‘Relativity vs. Universality’
- Ethical Standards of Domestic Policy for immigrants
Trends in Global Migration:
- Globalization of Migration: more countries involved.
- Increase in overall number of people migrating
- Wider social range of migrants (more diverse) ex) class, religion, education
- Broader categories of migrants ex) refugee, family, economic, temp workers
- Nearly all developed countries now have large immigrants populations &
increase levels of ethno cultural/radical diversity.

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Trends in Canadian Migration:
- Changes in Source Countries
- Majority of immigrants in mid 1990s were from European countries like UK,
France, Italy.
- Today majority of immigrants come from outside Europe like china, india,
Reasons For Migration: Economic Reasons, Family, Refugees
Push-Pull Theory: Cause of Migration are a combination of Push & Pull factors
Push: Causing People to leave area of origin ex) Demographic Growth, Low living
standards, lack of economic opportunities.
Pull: Attracts people to receiving countries. Ex) Demand for labour, availability of
land, economic opportunities, political freedoms.
-Very individualistic: Based on individual/personal decisions
-Deals with insufficiency with constraining factors with migration.
Immigrant: Is someone who was born outside of Canada and has been granted the
right to live permanently in the country.
Canada’s Immigration Statistics
2006 – 19.8% of Population is foreign born (highest in 75 years)
58.3% asia, 16.1% Europe, 10.8% central/south America, 10.6% Africa
Top countries being China India, Philippines, Pakistan
Canada’s Immigration Settlement Trends
Provincially: 1)54.4% Ontario, 2)18.1% BC, 3)13.8% Quebec, 4)8.5% Alberta
Majority settle in census metropolitan areas -94%
Immigration Flow to Canada : Admission Trends
- Changes from Building a white, Christian Canada to a multicultural Canada.
- Supports diverse heritage cultural presentation
- Assistance of all cultural groups to participate in Canadian society.
Changing Models of Canadian Immigration & Policy Shifts

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a) 1867-1967: Building white, British, Christian Canada.
- Basis of immigration: country of origin, race
- Exclusion: Asian, blacks, Jews
- View has held by strong political consensus
- Non British immigrant only in national/economic interest ex) Chinese rail road
- Immigrants expected to assimilate to British norm.
b) 1967-2000: Building Multicultural Canada with Global Human Capital
- Change in immigrant selection
- 1960: Race plus nationality prepares for immigrants
- Point system 1967 establishes human capital formula for immigrant selection
- Result of Trudeau’s multiculturalism policy 1971
- Approx 250000 Immigrants admission per year
- 60% economic class, 30% family 10% refugees.
c) 2000-Today: New regime of immigrant selection
- Canada turns to guest workers
- Increase temporary foreign workers
- Large immigrant citizenship and immigration
- Change in admission priorities: allows more immigrants to become citizens.
Assimilation: Result of Multiculturism, which encourages, absorption of minority
into dominant culture ex) Melting pot = USA.
Citizenship Trends & Naturalization Process Rates
- Became easier/faster for immigrants to become citizens ( 3 years)
- Considered as soon-to-be citizens
- Canada permits dual citizenship
- Canada has high rate of immigrant naturalization
- 2006: 85.1% of all immigrants eligible to become Canadian citizens were
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