CCT200: Final Exam Notes
Intercultural communication: Field of study which focuses on interplay between
culture and communication.
- Ways in which cultural differences influence communication
- Can be viewed in macro and micro
Reasons to Study Intercultural Communication
a) Demographic Imperative: (where people live)
- Knowing target market to understand different clusters of different cultures in
- Changing immigration patters
- Increase in diversity
- Relationship of host society to new immigrants
b) Economic Imperative: “globalization”
- Facing issues of intercultural communication (imports/exports)
c) Technological Imperative: Global village
- Electronically mediated Communication
- Access of technology in areas of the world. (digital divide)
d) Ethical Imperative:
- ‘Relativity vs. Universality’
- Ethical Standards of Domestic Policy for immigrants
Trends in Global Migration:
- Globalization of Migration: more countries involved.
- Increase in overall number of people migrating
- Wider social range of migrants (more diverse) ex) class, religion, education
- Broader categories of migrants ex) refugee, family, economic, temp workers
- Nearly all developed countries now have large immigrants populations &
increase levels of ethno cultural/radical diversity. Trends in Canadian Migration:
- Changes in Source Countries
- Majority of immigrants in mid 1990s were from European countries like UK,
- Today majority of immigrants come from outside Europe like china, india,
Reasons For Migration: Economic Reasons, Family, Refugees
Push-Pull Theory: Cause of Migration are a combination of Push & Pull factors
Push: Causing People to leave area of origin ex) Demographic Growth, Low living
standards, lack of economic opportunities.
Pull: Attracts people to receiving countries. Ex) Demand for labour, availability of
land, economic opportunities, political freedoms.
-Very individualistic: Based on individual/personal decisions
-Deals with insufficiency with constraining factors with migration.
Immigrant: Is someone who was born outside of Canada and has been granted the
right to live permanently in the country.
Canada’s Immigration Statistics
2006 – 19.8% of Population is foreign born (highest in 75 years)
58.3% asia, 16.1% Europe, 10.8% central/south America, 10.6% Africa
Top countries being China India, Philippines, Pakistan
Canada’s Immigration Settlement Trends
Provincially: 1)54.4% Ontario, 2)18.1% BC, 3)13.8% Quebec, 4)8.5% Alberta
Majority settle in census metropolitan areas -94%
Immigration Flow to Canada : Admission Trends
- Changes from Building a white, Christian Canada to a multicultural Canada.
- Supports diverse heritage cultural presentation
- Assistance of all cultural groups to participate in Canadian society.
Changing Models of Canadian Immigration & Policy Shifts a) 1867-1967: Building white, British, Christian Canada.
- Basis of immigration: country of origin, race
- Exclusion: Asian, blacks, Jews
- View has held by strong political consensus
- Non British immigrant only in national/economic interest ex) Chinese rail road
- Immigrants expected to assimilate to British norm.
b) 1967-2000: Building Multicultural Canada with Global Human Capital
- Change in immigrant selection
- 1960: Race plus nationality prepares for immigrants
- Point system 1967 establishes human capital formula for immigrant selection
- Result of Trudeau’s multiculturalism policy 1971
- Approx 250000 Immigrants admission per year
- 60% economic class, 30% family 10% refugees.
c) 2000-Today: New regime of immigrant selection
- Canada turns to guest workers
- Increase temporary foreign workers
- Large immigrant citizenship and immigration
- Change in admission priorities: allows more immigrants to become citizens.
Assimilation: Result of Multiculturism, which encourages, absorption of minority
into dominant culture ex) Melting pot = USA.
Citizenship Trends & Naturalization Process Rates
- Became easier/faster for immigrants to become citizens ( 3 years)
- Considered as soon-to-be citizens
- Canada permits dual citizenship
- Canada has high rate of immigrant naturalization
- 2006: 85.1% of all immigrants eligible to become Canadian citizens were
naturalized - 2x higher immigrant naturalization rates than USA.
The Point System: System for ranking/evaluation candidates on the basis of
- Objective criteria with no rate
- Look at people as human capital, workers
- Driven by economics
- Formula for immigration (language spoken, education, work experience, age)
- Establishes human capital formula for immigration section.
Dual Citizenship: Canada is known for allowing citizens to have multiple
Immigrant Political Participation: 2007 Canada has highest proportion of
foreign born legislators in the world.
- 19.5% canandian population foreign born.
- 13% members of parliament foreign born
- 2% house of representatives
Temporary Workers in Canada
- Big increase in Temp foreign worker admission to Canada.
- Most are ineligible for Canadian Citizenship.
Exclusionary Immigration Policies and Practices in Canada
- From 1867-1967, Blacks, Jews & Asians were not allowed to enter unless it
was for national economic reason. (expect to assimilate)
- $975 Right of Canadian Fee: Expensive for most immigrants from 3 world rd
countries to afford. (way of keeping them out)
- Canadian Government Encourages new coming cultures & communities to
participate in society by enhancing their level of economic, social & cultural
- Supports: Promotes respect for differences
- Promotes integration of all - Government will promote creative encounters among all Canadian cultural
groups in the interest of national unity.
- Critics: promotes ethnic identities over Canadian
- Promotes un Canadian values
- Prevents immigration integration
- Prevents Canadian identity & loyalty
- Promotes Neo liberal value of multiculturism as economic comparative
Ethnocentrism: Believing our way of doing things and of believing that it’s the
- Problems occur when we judge others by using our personal set of values to
Stereotype: Generalization about a group of people and can be positive or
- Involve 3 essential aspects:
1) Categorize others based on easily identifiable characteristics
2) We assume certain attributes apply to most or all of the people
3) We assume that individual members of the category have the attributes
associated with the group.
Prejudice: Negative attitude towards individuals reasoning from stereotypes.
- Prejudice People: 1. Ignore evidence that is inconsistent with their biased
2. Distract the evidence to fit their prejudice.
Discrimination: Unequal treatment of certain individuals based on their
membership in a certain group (defined by race, ethnicity, age, religion or some
other characteristic). Prejudice leads to discrimination.
Racism: Discrimination often leads to racism.
- Distinguished from prejudice & discrimination by oppression & power.
Narrative Approach to Intercultural Communication (Fisher) - Base of that huma