Intercultural communication: field of study which focuses on interplay between culture and communication. Ways in which cultural differences influence communication. Can be viewed in macro and micro. Reasons to study intercultural communication: demographic imperative: (where people live) Knowing target market to understand different clusters of different cultures in different areas. Relationship of host society to new immigrants: economic imperative: globalization , technological imperative: global village. Access of technology in areas of the world. (digital divide: ethical imperative: Wider social range of migrants (more diverse) ex) class, religion, education. Broader categories of migrants ex) refugee, family, economic, temp workers. Nearly all developed countries now have large immigrants populations & increase levels of ethno cultural/radical diversity. Majority of immigrants in mid 1990s were from european countries like uk, Today majority of immigrants come from outside europe like china, india, phillipines. Push-pull theory: cause of migration are a combination of push & pull factors.