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Test Study Notes

8 Pages

Communication, Culture and Technology
Course Code
Gail Benick

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Test 2 Focus: Weeks 7 – 11 Public relations campaigns: goals and objectives Public relations - the practice of managing the flow of information between an organization and its publics. (E.g. getting the word out) - gains an organization or individual exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do not require direct payment. - Because public relations places exposure in credible third-party outlets, it offers a third- party legitimacy that advertising does not have. Common activities include speaking at conferences, working with the press, and employee communication; therefore it is often called earned media. - hope that members of the media will come and write a story of that event/idea therefore earning the right to be in that editorial hence the name earned media Campaign Planning • objective - What is the campaign aiming for ? • Goals - What are the main changes this campaign is focusing on • audience - Who should this campaign aim for? • Key messages - What is the key change we want to bring to the society • strategy - What are the ways to achieve our goals • tactics - How do we implement our strategy to reach our goals • measurement – Statistics Digital informational environment for political engagement • More intensive and extensive than old media • Political information ‘captured’ in multiple spaces created by new communication technologies i.e. email, internet sources, video • New politics is a struggle over info & perception management & control in wide range of media sources • Oppositional political formations outside of mainstream politics • Novel forms of direction political action: o Mass email campaigns, electronic petitions, parody sites Use of social media by political parties Parties use the web as multi-tools for: • Administrative: resource on party history, activities, contact information • Active campaign tool: party platform communicated directly to constituents; party sets own agenda and target it to specific groups • Organizational and participatory tool *Use of digital networks by new social movements Advocacy Campaigns are about having the intention of creating change. - The Goal: To engage the public to help bring about the change you want - How? 1) Craft your message. 2) Persuade people to care. 3) Ask them to join you in making change. - 1) Crafting: Decide what people need to know about your issue in order to agree to the changes you are campaigning for - 2) Pick something that will affect them directly, and will get the message through. - 3) Ask them to join by applying pressure --> what do decision makers care about? (E.g. politicians care about getting votes; corporations care about making money, the public has a variety of interests) ExperiencePoint Inc. ExperiencePoint helps individuals and their organizations achieve extraordinary results through "perfect practice". We design and deliver engaging, powerful simulations that enable focused experience with business theory, techniques, and tools. Our mission is to help individuals learn, grow, and excel in the workplace. Networked governance distribution of select government functions • decentralization and democratization of governance – policy consulting – service delivery – regulation of standards – program implementation - democratization of information - public officials using social media Accelerated pluralism Is a possible scenario with erosion of traditional political parties = Will the Internet be a platform for single issue networks and protest groups thereby increasing the competition for parties? Cyberbalkanization • political discussions on Net that lead to fragmentation and polarization rather than consensus • Net gives people access to a large number of news sources, but also lets them pinpoint the ones they agree with and ignore the rest Thin citizenship • “thin citizenship,” “individuals not required to have their own active, engaged political memory because they can quickly respond to simplified policy options and poll questions policy options. • Thin citizen can respond quickly to political urges and need not spend significant amounts of time contemplating political matters • this comes from the idea web allows micro targeting and segmentation and political mobilization Definition and types of digital divide 1. Access based on the difference between individuals with access and those without access to ICTs Focus on Infrastructure: - Possibility/difficulty of having computers available that are connected to the worldwide net - Issues involving servers, hardware and software. 2. Usage based on individuals who know how to use these technologies and those who do not focus on Resource Usage: - Limitation/possibility that people have to use the resources and information available on the Web. - New modes of online education, business, medical servicing, telework, entertainment and leisure 3. Usage quality based on the differences between those same users Focus on Capacity Building: - The difference related to the skills and capacities to adequately use the technology and not only the possibility of having a computer available - Development of digital literacy Optimists and pessimists with respect to the digital divide Optimists = believe that convergence and the emergence of more user-friendly technology will diminish the impact of the digital divide going forward • Pessimists = question the assumptions of the optimists i.e. believe that convergence and more technology will only widen the gap Barriers to accessing interactive communication technologies 1. Income & affordability = Corporation giants like Microsoft use the power of compatibility and software to act as barriers to use specific programs. This software’s can be very costly 2. Evolution of the technologies= Technology is always changing and often new technologies build on the previous ones, if you don’t have the foundations it is hard to catch up 3. Falling prices = perhaps because of the theory that every piece of technology will either expand to include 2X the amount of space or decrease by 2X the the theory is applied in that technology loses value quickly and we constantly need to update our products and those who are unable to will fall behind *4. Social norms = This one im not so sure...but I would say wikispaces fosters a collaborative environment and let’s say if someone does not believe in the idea of collaborative thoughts and is against conforming to this idea then they will not engage and thus the idea acts as a barrier to those who have opposing social ideas Necessity of ICTs vs. other societal needs (eg. food, water, education, etc.) Like the example from class as well, in regards to social norms, low income families might not partake in ICT interaction as their friends/family also do not have access, so even if one person has a computer and Internet access, they may not feel like they have anyone to communicate with, or they may not use the Internet for the same purposes. Example: Social Norms of elderly - An old lady probably won't ask her other old lady friend for her MSN because it's not the norm for old people to use certain online technologies. Connectivity by demographic groupings Variables of interest: income, education, age, gender, geographical location. Each of these results in the delineation of different groupings of people, with different size and other characteristics. Internet usage by demographic groupings Internet use declines dramatically with age • Over 90% of teenagers use the Net • Less than 5% for individuals 70 years & older • Access opportunities • Skill • Perceived needs • Attitudes and overall lifestyles Second Life it is a virtual world developed by Linden Lab that launched on June 23,
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