CCT208H5 Midterm: CCT208Test1Note.Docx

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Communication, Culture and Technology
Jeffrey Boase

Lecture 2 - Communication research methods Teens and technology ● Concerns of mobile phone use in youths ● How social media is affecting teens Implications - These questions are just starting points ● We also need an ontological and epistemological stance ○ Ontology - The nature of being, of reality ■ Mobile phones are addictive ■ Teens use mobile phones because they want to relax and stay connected ● Objectivist vs Constructionist ○ Objectivist - Social phenomena have an objective reality, independent of our perceptions ○ Constructionist - There are no facts, only interpretations ○ Epistemology - The study of knowledge; Research implies epistemology ● Literature review Broad approaches in communication research ● Positivism - Gather data, use it to test hypotheses ○ Hypothese - Testable statements about the world ● Interpretivism - Social research focusing on meaning; Empathic understanding ● Critical - Both interpretation and hypothesis testing. Never neutral Examples ● Positivism - Is exposure to mobile technology addictive in teens? ○ Hypothesis - As access to mobile tech increases, addictive behaviour increases ○ Data - Number of opportunities to use mobile; Indicators of addiction ● Interpretivism - How do teens feel about their mobile use? ○ Approach - Spend time with teens; Talk to teens about their mobile use ○ Data - Conversations and observations; Reflection on conversations and observations ● Critical approach - How can teens use mobiles in social movements that challenge the status quo? ○ Approach - Many possible ○ Possible focus - Mobiles as a tool for change The quant qual divide - Quantitative vs Qualitative ● Quantitative - Numerical; Associated with positivism ● Qualitative - Quality, meaning; Associated with interpretivism Inductive and Deductive approaches - Both involves literature review ● Inductive - Collect, then generate ○ Observations/findings - Theory ● Deductive - Generate, then collect ○ Theory - Hypotheses - Data - Findings - Hypothese confirm/reject - Revision of theory ● Iterative - Moving back and forth between data and theory Connections ● Quantitative - Deductive - Positivism ● Qualitative - Inductive - Interpretivism _________________________________________________________________________ __ Lecture 3 - Communication research methods (Cont) Unobtrusive research - Research without interaction; Historic or contemporary ● Uses artifacts like pre-existing documents, or old media Frames - Frames shapes media by “what will be discussed, how it will be discussed, and how it will not be discussed” Qualitative (extra info) - Manifest & Latent Content ● Manifest content - Visible, surface content with no interpretation ● Latent content - Subtle or implicit meanings that require interpretation Qualitative research is a process ● Start with a research question ● What data addresses it best? ● Collect new data as necessary ● Analysis - Analysis is a process; “Trust the process” ● Reflexivity - Reflect about your position within the research process Coding - Systematically going through data and labeling codes ● Codes - Name for your topics, phrases, activities, events or images that you develop from immersing yourself in data Discourse & Narrative & Conversation Analysis ● Discourse - Diverting focus from bad to good; Powerful source of social control ● Narrative - Revolving around stories; Combines individuals’ narratives to build a collective story (Ex. Humans of New York) ○ Develops coding to classify types of storytelling and responses ● Conversation - Part of discourse analysis; Focus on implied meaning ○ Metamessages - Pitch, length of pause, rate of speech in a conversation Lecture 4 - Communication research methods (Cont) **On writing, not research** Writing as a process ● Literature → Question → Data & Analysis → Results and Discussion → Conclusion Tips ● Help gain new insights at the end ● Think of the reader as younger, intelligent sibling ● Think about your coding ● Key themes that address your question (2-4) ○ Write a paragraph for each theme ● Using quotes helps show meaning and gives a voice to those you are studying Example - What are common problems and support opportunities of foreign students in Japan?
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