CCT208H5 Midterm: CCT208Test2Notes.Docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Communication, Culture and Technology
Jeffrey Boase

Epistemology ● Numbers aren’t objective; Good research considers context and works to reduce misunderstanding & misinterpretation ● Political context - Generally mean considering who has power & influence ○ Politics shapes numeric research ■ What research gets funded & gets approved or rejected ● Context is key to understanding and questioning numbers Design ● Case study - Focuses on particular event, situation or person; Explore and describe ● Experimental - Treatment group & control group; Both randomly selected groups ○ Treatment group - X happens ○ Control group - X doesn’t happen ○ Field experiments - Same as regular experiments except in a natural setting ○ Natural experiment - Groups aren’t selected by the researchers ■ Ex. Drafted for war; Mother of male children VS female children ● Quasi-experimental - Divide people into groups based on something that interests you and see if those groups are different from each other ○ Longitudinal ■ Trend study - Studying trends over time ■ Cohort study - Study people who are the same age over time ■ Panel study - Same people studied over time Pros and cons of all designs ● Case study ○ PROS - Quick, simple, cost effective ○ CONS - Difficult to generalize ● Experimental ○ PROS - Control for all factors except one; Helps understand causality ○ CONS - Hard to apply results to real world; Can be expensive ● Quasi-experimental ○ PROS - Can have large samples; Less expensive than longitudinal designs ○ CONS - Circular causality ● Quasi-experimental Longitudinal ○ PROS - Better with causality; Shows how things change over time ○ CONS - Expensive, time consuming Key terms ● How key terms are conceptualized affects how they are operationalized ○ Conceptualized - Abstract definition ○ Operationalized - Creating measures based on abstract definition ● Respondents can be influenced through: wording of question, categories and order of categories ○ Ex. Which candidate do you feel is the weakest? ○ Ex. Which candidate do you feel is most appealing to voters such as yourself? ○ Ex. Which candidate do you find to be most persuasive overall? ● What gives key terms reliability? ○ Reliability - Measures gives similar results again and again ■ They could reference other works or their own tests for reliability ○ Validity - Measure is “true” ■ Does the measure really operationalize the concept ** Key term influence operationalization, operationalization influences responses, and responses influence results ** Variables types ● Nominal - No order (religion, gender) ● Ordinal - Order (educational degree, likert scales: “Strongly agree, agree, disagree”) ● Interval - Order with equal distance (temperature) ● Ratio - Order with equal distance (Hours spent on TV; Number of texts sent today) Central tendency - The 3Ms of “average” ● Mean - Real average ● Median - Middle number of all ordered numbers ● Mode - Most common number Questioning Descriptive statistic - Describing patterns in a specific group ● You have data on all UofT students, and only make generalizations about UofT students Inferential statistic - Extending those re
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