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University of Toronto Mississauga
Communication, Culture and Technology
Divya Maharajh

250 Review 1 Definitions Chapter 1 Doing Social Research Social researchA process in which a researcher combines a set of principles outlooks and ideas with a collection of specific practices techniques and strategies to produce knowledge Overgeneralization An error that people often make when using personal experience as an alternative to science for acquiring knowledge It occurs when some evidence supports a belief but a person falsely assumes that it applies to many other situations too Selective observation The tendency to take notice of certain people or events based on past experience or attitudes Premature closure An error that is often made when using personal experience as an alternative to science for acquiring knowledge It occurs when a person feels he or she has the answers and does not need to listen seek information or raise questions any long Halo effect An error often made when people use personal experience as an alternative to science for acquiring knowledge It is when a person overgeneralizes from what he or she accepts as being highly positive or prestigious and lets its strong reputation or prestige rub off onto other areasData The empirical evidence or information that a person gathers carefully according to established rules or procedures it can be qualitative or quantitative Qualitative data information in the form of words pictures sounds visual images or objects Quantitative date information in the form of numbers Empirical evidence the observations that people experience through their senses touch sight hearing smell and taste these can be direct or indirect Scientific community A collection of people who share a system of rules and attitudes that sustain the process of producing scientific knowledge Scientific method The process of creating new knowledge using the ideas techniques and rules of the scientific community 1 select topic2 Focusquestion 7 inform othersTHEOTY 3 design6 interpret studydata 4 collect data 5 analyze data Basic social research Research designed to advance fundamental knowledge about the social world Applied social research Research that attempts to solve a concrete problem or address a specific policy question and that has a direct practical applicationComparisons Basic Applied 1 Research is intrinsically 1 Research is part of a job and is satisfying and judgments are by judged by sponsors who are outside other social scientists the disciplines of social science 2 Research problems and subjects 2 Research problems are narrowly are selected with a great deal of constrained to the demands of freedom employers or sponsors 3 Research is judged by absolute 3 The rigour and standards of norms of scientific rigour and the scholarship depend on the uses of highest standards of scholarship results Research can be quick and are sought dirty or may match high scientific standards 4 The primary concern is with the 4 The primary concern is with the internal logic and rigour of ability to generalize findings to research designareas of interest to sponsors 5 The driving goal is to contribute 5 The driving goal is to have to basic theoretical knowledge practical payoffs or uses for results 6 Success comes when results 6 success comes when results are appear in a scholarly journal and used by sponsors in decision have an impact on others in the making scientific communityAction researchA type of applied social research in which a researcher treats knowledge as a form of power and abolishes the division between creating knowledge and using knowledge to engage in political actionSocial impact assessment SIA A type of applied social research in which a researcher estimates the likely consequences or outcome of a planned intervention or international change to occur in the future Exploratory research Research into an area that has not been studied and in which a researcher wants to develop initial ideas and a more focused research question Descriptive Research Research in which one paints a picture with words or numbers presents a profile outlines stages or classifies types Explanatory research Research that focuses on why events occur or tries to test and build social theory Crosssectional researchResearch in which a researcher examines a single point in time or takes a onetime snapshot approach Longitudinal research Research in which the researcher examines the features of people or other units at multiple points in time Timeseries study Any research that takes place over time in which different people or cases may be looked at in each time period Panel study A powerful type of longitudinal research in which a researcher observes exactly the same people group or organization across multiple time points
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