Cognitive compression effect: compressed in time
you cant see it as it progresses
little edited segments that are presented to the view
shot and edited in a certain
captures particular aspects
presented in an easy digestible format
is subject to style
the journalist sorts the people into groups/countries
Baudrillard: “this has led to a generalized passiveness and lack of reflecting in how people
receive and understand messages; a passive and cognitively effortless way of ‘reading’ the
TV text. It’s presented, packaged and digested before you even have time to reflect on it”
2) According to Fiske, television codes are embedded in ideological codes: what
does this mean and why would a viewer accept these codes?
- representational convention by which women are shown to lack knowledge which men
possess and give to them is an example of the ideological code of patriarchy; similarly the
conventional representation of crime as theft of personal property is an encoding of the
ideology of capitalism: common sense can only be produced when “reality” representations
and ideology merge into a coherent, seemingly natural unity; for example extreme close-ups
become a codified way for representing villainy (ex. in an episode of Hart to Hart, Fiske
discusses, in which of the 21 scenes 18 were of the villains… or emphasis the tension of
someone being interviewed)
- viewers accept these codes because characters on television are not just representations of
individual people but are encodings of ideology “embodiments of ideological values” (ex.
with heroes being more attractive then villains and the camera angles and lighting
changing to emphasize these roles which are socially central types who embody the
- We are maintaining and legitimatizing the dominant ideology, and our reward for this is
the easy pleasure of the recognition of the familiar and of its adequacy; popular television is
popular because it is both complex and infused with ideology
- How does television make and circulate meanings that serve the dominant interests of
- Level One - Reality: appearance, dress, colour, make up, speech, behaviour, sound, etc.
- Level Two - Representation: camera, lighting, editing, music, sound, etc.
- Level Three - Ideology: All of these are organized into coherence and social
acceptability at this next level of ideological codes, such as: individualism, patriarchy,
race, materialism, capitalism
- “audience” implies that television reaches a homogeneous mass of people who are all
essentially identical, receiving the same messages, meaning and ideologies, and are passive
3) Why is birth of a nation a racist film? How does it naturalize racism?
- It has provoked great controversy for its treatment of white supremacy and sympathetic
account of the Ku Klux Klan