CCT210 Midterm Study Guide .docx

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Communication, Culture and Technology
Elizabeth Peden

CCT210 Midterm Study Guide By Alex Tsai Part one: Definitions Binary oppositions: The principle of contrasts between two mutually exclusive terms: on/off, up/down, left/right etc; an important concept of structuralism, which sees such distinctions as fundamental to all language and thought. (opposite of theorectical) For instance, if a masculine man thinking of how he should dress up today for 2 hours which he has female emotion. Then we could say this is a binary opposition, masculine versus the feminine Polysemy/Polysemic: The existence of several meanings in a single word For instance, the word “play” can be different meanings as it could be “play” a video or “play” basketball. Mediagenic moments: Attractive as a subject for reporting by news media Modality judgment: It is an epistemic modality that connotes the speaker’s strength of inference or degree of confidence For instance, the word “may” signals possible occurrence; and the word “must” signals confirmed occurrence. Projection: The act of projecting or the condition of being projected. For instance, a girl who dislike her friend because of her friend satirize her in front of their friends. She didn’t show her emotion right away, but to keep her emotion onto her boyfriend who is innocence. Syntext: The study of the rules whereby words or other elements of sentence structure are combined to form grammatical sentences. Part two: Short Answer 1. Saussure offered two-part model of the sign. He defined a sign as being composed of: - A signifier (the form which the sign takes) (the word, the sound-image) - The signified (the concept it represents) (the meaning) For instance: The word “open” (when it is invested with meaning by someone who encounters it on a shop doorway) is a sign consisting of: Signifier: the word: open Signified concept: that the shop is open for business - Saussure also believes that a sign has no ‘absolute’ value independent of this concept. - What is signified then clearly depends on the relationship between the two parts of the sign, the value of a sign is determined by the relationships between the sign and other signs within the system as a whole - Saussure argues that there is no necessary, intrinsic, direct or inevitable relationship between the signifier and the signified. Peirce has a three part model - The representamen: the form which the sign takes (not necessarily material) = (Saussure’s signifier) - An interpretant: not an interpreter but rather the sense made of the sign =(Saussure’s signified) - An object: to which the sign refers (could be real or physical) FOR EXAMPLE: Traffic light - The red light facing traffic is the “Representamen” - The idea that a red light indicated that vehicles must stop is the “Interpretant” - The vehicles actually stopping are the “Object”(the object as represented in the representamen) A FUNDAMENTAL DIVISION OF PEIRCE’S SIGNS: - Symbol/symbolic: a mode in which the signifier does not resemble the signified but which is fundamentally arbitrary or purely conventional - so that the relationship must be learnt: e.g. language, alphabetical letters, numbers, morse code, traffic lights, national flags; - Icon/iconic: a mode in which the signifier is perceived as resembling or imitating the signified (recognizably looking, sounding, feeling, tasting or smelling like it) - being similar in possessing some of its qualities: e.g. a portrait, imitative gestures (putting your hand up showing “Stop”) - Index/indexical: a mode in which the signifier is not arbitrary but is directly connected in some way to the signified - this link can be observed or inferred: e.g. smoke is an index to fire, pain is an index to illness Denotation: - Definitional, literal, obvious or commonsense meaning of a sign. It is relatively self-contained
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