study guide 210-4.docx

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Department
Communication, Culture and Technology
Course
CCT210H5
Professor
Elizabeth Peden
Semester
Fall

Description
syntagmatic/paradigmatic axis: Saussure emphasized that meaning arises from the differences between signifiers; these differences are of two kinds: syntagmatic (concerning positioning) and paradigmatic (concerning substitution). A paradigm is a set of associated signifiers or signified which are all members of some defining category, but in which each is significantly different. For example, In film and television, paradigms include ways of changing shot (such as cut, fade, dissolve and wipe. A syntagm is an orderly combination of interacting signifiers which forms a meaningful whole within a text. for example, for instance, is a syntagm of words; so too are paragraphs and chapters. These two dimensions are often presented as 'axes', where the horizontal axis is the syntagmatic and the vertical axis is the paradigmatic. Whilst syntagmatic relations are possibilities of combination, paradigmatic relations are functional contrasts - they involve differentiation .The 'value' of a sign is determined by both its paradigmatic and its syntagmatic relations. Syntagms and paradigms provide a structural context within which signs make sense; they are the structural forms through which signs are organized into codes. (Online source Paradigms and Syntagms) Commodity capitalism: According to Giddens. Which seeks to standardize consumptions patterns on a global scale and in turn enables the capitalist’s drive for constant economic growth. Advertising is one of capitalisms primary tools for controlling directing and shaping consumerism to enhance this growth. It does so by presenting consumers with consumption packages which enable each individual’s project of the self to be translated into one of the passion of desired goods and the pursuit of artificially framed styles of life.p.256 History fabrication effect: Danesi refer to the fact that TV has become not only the main way in which we document history but also a source of fabricating it. The event that show cased on TV is felt as being more significant and historically meaningful to society than those that are not. A riot that gets airtime becomes a historical event one that does not is ignored. This why terrorist are seemingly more interested in simply getting on the air than in having their demand satisfied. TV imbues their cause with significance. Political and social protesters frequently inform the news media of their intentions, and then dramatically stage their demonstrations for the cameras. For example, sports event world series and the super bowl. People also make up their minds about the guilt or innocence of others by watching news and interview programs the see certain behaviours as loudable or domnable by tuning in to talk shows or docudramas. In a phrase, TV has become the maker of history and its documenter at the same time. People now experience history through TV not just read about it in a book or study it in at school. P.174 Short answer: Mythologizing   effect:   danesi   refer   to   the   celebrity   making   as   the  Mythologizing effect, because the celebrities’ that television creates are  perceived as mythic figures, longer than life. Like any type of privileged  space, a platform, a pulpit.  So, television creates mythic personages by  simply   containing   them   in   electronic   space,   where   they   are   seen   as  suspended in real time and space, in a mythic world of their own. The “box”  is psychologically similar to any kind of magic speaking box of many  fantasies . Also, TV personages are infused with a defined quality by virtue  of the fact that they are seen inside the mythical box. This why meeting tv  actors , sitcom stars causes great enthusiasm and excitement in many people. History fabrication effect: Danesi refer to the fact that TV has become not only the main way in which we document history but also a source of fabricating it. The event that show cased on TV is felt as being more significant and historically meaningful to society than those that are not. A riot that gets airtime becomes a historical event one that does not is ignored. This why terrorist are seemingly more interested in simply getting on the air than in having their demand satisfied. TV imbues their cause with significance. Political and social protesters frequently inform the news media of their intentions, and then dramatically stage their demonstrations for the cameras. For example, sports event world series and the super bowl. People also make up their minds about the guilt or innocence of others by watching news and interview programs the see certain behaviours as loudable or domnable by tuning in to talk shows or docudramas. In a phrase, TV has become the maker of history and its documenter at the same time. People now experience history through TV not just read about it in a book or study it in at school. P.174 Cognitive compression effect: danesi refer to the fact that the tv medium presents its stories, information, and features in compacted form for time constrained transmission. Consequently, viewers have little time to reflect on the subject, implications and meanings contained in the messages. This leads to a passive and effortless way of “reading” the TV text. The amount of information presented in a short period of time on a news program is torrential. We are able to take it al because the various stories have been edited and stylized beforehand for effortless mass consumption. For example, the camera moves in to selected aspect of a situation, to show a face that cares, that is suffering, that is happy, that is angry, and then shifts to the handsome face of anchorman or to the attractive one of the anchorwomen to till us what all about. Baudrillard: interprets many representations as a means of concealing the absence of reality. when speech and writing were created, signs were invented to point to material or social reality, but the bond between signifier and signified became eroded. In the postmodern age of 'hyper-reality' in which what are only illusions in the media of communication seem very real, signs hide the absence of reality and only pretend to mean something. For Baudrillard, the signs which characterize late capitalism - come in three forms: counterfeit (imitation) - when there was still a direct link between signifiers and their signifieds; production (illusion) - when there was an indirect link between signifier and signified; and simulation (fake) - when signifiers came to stand in relation only to other signifiers and not in relation to any fixed external reality. Baudrillard claim that the Gulf War never happened is certainly provocative. Short answer: 2. Disembodiment: Computers are allowing us into a more simulated environment where we can manipulate objects with our minds. This is conditioning people to see the mind from the body. Virtual worlds are different because they need certain interface devices. These devices record and send speech/movement to the simulation program, and the result is that the actual human being is interacting with a made-up world. This idea of a virtual world was prominent in the 1990s, and it immerses the user in a computationally generated reality, with an illusion of a 3D space. With appropriating sensing technologies, the user can enter the virtual space and act within it. Also, lets look at video game addiction. The level you reach in a video game…there is a certain perception that we get that our body is separated from our mind. Computers allow users to move and react in a computer- simulated environment, manipulating virtual objects in place of real ones, and what this kind of engagement does is condition people more and more to perceive the body as separable from the mind. The idea then is that now we are seeing them as operating separately, and  this is a strange form of Cartesian Dualism. Re­Embodiment: As digital technologies continue to advance, technology  will bring the regeneration of the body and mind. This is a process defined  by Marshall McLuhan. re­tribalization’, which refers to the ideology that  with more use of computers and global communication more people will go  back towards using traditional forms of communication. Re­tribalization  refers to humans that live in a virtual society will desire to live as a tribal  society. The manifestation processes are everywhere. Even though people  today see themselves as interconnected to world events (through TV and  Internet) they still have a strong desire to live in the free world. Therefore, with all of the above in mind, it becomes difficult to think about denotation and connotation generally bec
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