Final Exam Study Guide

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Communication, Culture and Technology

Exam Study Guide Group Presentations Sign Icon, Index and Symbol Saussure had a two part model. He defined a sign as being composed of: The signifier the form that the sign takes (not necessarily a physical form) The signified the concept it represents Therefore the sign results from the association of the signifier with the signified. Example: The Open Sign on a shop door o The word OPEN is the signifier o The concept that the store is open is the signified Peirce has a three part model. o The representamen is the form which the sign takes (not necessarily material form) The representamen is equivalent to Saussures signifier. o The interpretertant is the sense made out of the sign. It is equivalent to Saussures signified o Pierce includes one further item which Saussure does not. He talks about the object to which the sign refers. o Example: Traffic light sign for Stop. The red light facing the traffic is the representamen. The idea that a red light indicates stopping to vehicles is the interpretant. The vehicles actually stopping are the object. o Peirce also divides signs into fundamental groups which are; symbol, icon and index. The symbol is a mode in which the signifier does not actual resemble the signifier but has been arbitrarily assigned and purely conventional. The relationship must be learnt. Examples of symbols are language, letters, numbers, etc Icon is a mode in which the signifier is perceived as resembling or imitating the signified by possessing some of its qualities. Examples of icons are portraits and imitative guestures. Index is a mode in which the signifier is not arbitrary but is directly connected in some way to the signified. This kind of relationship can be observed or inferred. An example of this is smoke to indicate fire, Symptoms to indicate illness. 2. Denotation and Connotation - Denotative: Most basic, face value, literal value of an image - Connatative: Roland Barthes: cultural, historic meaning Related to social codes. Judging unconsciously - Applying your own personal bias - Eg. Got milk ad- Denotative meaning: Caucasian woman, muscular, slim, black shoes, wearing necklace, black hair. Text. Connotative: Endorsement of the biggest loser, milk is the reason why women look so good and lose weight. Definition of Connotation: According to Roland Barthes, the term connotation is used to refer to the cultural, historical and personal associations of the sign allowing us to expand application of signs creatively. Codes to which you have accessare also used in connotation. Usually, you dont realize that your perception of something includes both connotation and denotation. Since connotation is the personal judgment thats
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