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Communication, Culture and Technology
Mike Jones

CCT 356 DEFINITION EXAM REVIEW CHAPTER 1: SITUATION DIGITAL IN MARKETING 1. Steps to the strategic process: • Think: Research, plan and strategize. Use the opportunities of digital to meet communication, market and product challenges. Plan assets and campaigns. • Create: make beautiful assets, from websites and videos to banner adverts and applications • Engage: use channels to drive traffic to those assets and build relationships with customers • Optimise: track and analyse to understand how assets and campaigns are performing. Derive insight to improve and tests assets and campaigns. 2.1 Introduction • Strategy: indicates the most advantageous direction for an organization to take over a defined period of time and outlines which tactics and means should be used to execute this direction. o It is about using your strengths, as well as the context in which you are operating to your advantage. • In marketing, strategy starts with understanding what the business wants to achieve, or what problem it wants to solve; then considers the context in which the business and its competitors operates, and outlines key ways in which the business and brand can gain advantage and value. (Starts externally considering the needs and expectations of the consumer and moving inwards to the brands identity). CHAPTER 2: Key Terms and Concepts • Application Programming Interface (API): A particular set of rules and specifications that software can abide by when communicating with each other. Serves as an interface between programs and facilitates their communication. API’s are often used by third- party developed to create applications for social media networks such as Twitter and Facebook. • Return on Investment (ROI): Ration of cost and profit • Search Engine Optimization (SEO): SEO is the practice that aims to improve a website’s ranking for specific keywords in the search engines. • Short Message Service (SMS): Electronic messages sent on a cellular network • Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP): • Strategy: A set of ideas that outline how a product line or brand will achieve its objectives. This guides decisions on how to create, distribute, promote and price products and services. • Tactic: A specific action or method that contributes to achieving a goal. • Web PR: Public Relation on the web. Online news releases and article syndication to promote brands as well as drive traffic to sites. • Cluetrain Manifesto: A set of 95 theses organised as a Call to Action (CTA) for businesses operating within a newly connected marketplace. • Market share: In a strategic management and marketing, the percentage or proportion of the total market or market segment that is being serviced by a company. • Metric: A unit of measurement • Online Reputation Management (ORM): The understanding and influencing the perception of an entity online. This entails ensuring you know what is being said about you, and that you are leading the conversations. • Pay per click (PPC): Advertiser only pays for each click on their advert • Really Simple Syndication (RSS): allows you to receive/ syndicate this information without requiring you constantly to open new pages in your browser. • eXtensible Markup Language(XML): a standard used for creating structured documents. CHAPTER 3 KEY TERMS: MARKET RESEARCH • Bounce rate: The number of people who view one page and then leave a website without viewing any other pages. • Data: statistics and facts collected for analysis • Focus group: a form of qualitative research where people are asked questions in an interactive group setting. From a marketing perspective, it is an important tool for acquiring feedback regarding new products and various topics • Hypothesis: a supposition that is tested in relation to known facts; a proposition based on reason but not necessarily assumed to be true • Listening Lab: a testing environment where the researcher observes how a customer uses a website or product • Observation/ online ethnography: when a researcher immerses themselves in a particular environment in order to gather insights. • ORM: online reputation management (ORM). Understanding the perception of an entity online. • Primary research: The collection of data to present a new set of findings from original data • Qualitative data: data that can be observed but not measured. Deals with descriptions • Quantitative data: data that can measured or defined. Deals with numbers • Really Simple Syndication: RSS allows you to receive updates without requiring you to constantly visit web pages in your browser • Research community: a community set up with the intention of being a source for research • Research methodology: methods employed in research for reaching results • Sample size: the number of respondents in a sample of the population • Secondary research: the collection of existing research data • Sentiment: the emotion attached to a particular mention – positive, negative or neutral • Statistically significant: A sample that is big enough to represent valid conclusions CHAPTER 4 KEY TERMS: CONTENT MARKETING STRATEGY • Algorithm: an algorithm is mathematical, computational or statistical method pre- determined to take a number of variables into account and output a single, quantifiable result that is a function of all variables. A good example of a commonly used algorithm is the one used by Google to determine which pages rank more highly on SERPs • Content audit: An examination and evaluation of the existing content which a brand publishes • Editor: a person who determines the ultimate content of a text, traditionally understood in the newspaper, magazine or publishing industry context • Information architecture: the way data and content are organized, structured and labelled to support usability • Persona: in this context, a character created to define a group of readers in order to speak to them as though they were a unique reader. Usually a hypothetical character to represent and personify a set of traits • Usability: a measure of how easy a system is to use. Sites with excellent usability fare far better than those that are difficult to use. CHAPTER 9 KEY TERMS: SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION • Alt text: the ‘alt’ attribute for the IMG HTML tag. It is used in HTML to attribute a test field to an image on a web page, normally with a descriptive function, telling a search engine or user what an image is about and displaying the text in instances where the image is unable to load. Also called Alt tag. • Anchor text: the visible, clickable text in a link • App store optimisation (ASO): the process of optimising mobile and web applications for the specific web stores in which they are distributed • Backlink: all the links on other pages that will take the user to a specific website. Each link to that specific page is known as an inbound/ backlink. The number of backlinks influences your ranking, so the more backlinks the better – get linking! • Canonical: the canonical version is the definitive version. In SEO, it refers to a definitive URL. • Domain name: the easy-to-read name used to identify an IP address of a server that distinguishes it from other systems on the World Wide Web: our domain name is • Flash: a technology used to show video and animation on a website. It can be bandwidth heavy and unfriendly to search engine spiders. • Heading tags: heading tags (H1, H2, H3, etc.) are standard elements used to define headings and subheadings on a web page. The number indicates the importance, so H1 tags are viewed by the spiders as being more important than H3 tags. Using target key phrases in your H tags is essential for effective SEO. • Home page: the first page of any website. The home page gives users a glimpse into what your site is about – very much like the index in a book, or a magazine • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): certain HTML tags are used to structure the information and features within a web page. • Hyperlink: a link in an electronic document that allows you, once you click on it, to follow the link to the relevant page. • Internet Protocol (IP) address: the Internet Protocol (IP) address is an exclusive number that is used to represent every single computer in a network. • Keyword frequency: the number of times a keyword or key phrase appears on a website • Key phrase: two or more words that are combined to form a search query – often referred to as keywords. It is usually better to optimise for a phrase rather than a single word. • Landing page: the page a user reaches when clicking on a paid or organic search engine listing. The pages that have the most success are those that match up as closely as possible with the user’s search query. • Link: a URL embedded on a web page. If you click on the link you will be taken to that page. • Link bait: a technique for creating content that is specifically designed to attract links from other pages. • Meta tags: tags that tell search engine spiders what exactly a web page is about. It’s important that your Meta tags are optimised for the targeted key phrases. Meta tags are made of Meta titles, descriptions and keywords • PageRank: Google’s secret algorithm for ranking web pages in search engine results pages • Referrer: when a user clicks on a link from one site to another, the site the user has left is the referrer. Most browsers log the referrer’s URL in referrer strings. This information is vital in determining which queries are being used to find specific sites • Robots.txt: a file written and stored in the root directory of a website that restricts the search engine spiders from indexing certain pages of the website. • Search engine spiders: programs that travel the web, following links and building up the indexes of search engines. • Universal Resource Locator (URL): a web address that is unique to every page on the Internet. • Usability: a measure of how easy it is for a user to complete a desired task. Sites with excellent usability fare far better than those that are difficult to use. • XML sitemap: a guide that search engines use to help them index a website, which indicates how many pages there are, how often they are updated and how important they are. CHAPTER 10 SEARCH ADVERTISING • Click through: a click on a text ad link that leads to a website • Click through rate (CTR): the total clicks on a link divided by the number of times that ad link has been shown, expressed as a percentage. • Conversion rate: the number of conversions divided by the number of visitors, expressed as a percentage • Cost per action (CPA): the amount paid when a certain action is performed by a user. • Cost per click (CPC): the amount paid when a link is clicked on • Google Adwords: Google’s search advertising program, which allows advertisers to display their adverts on relevant search results and across Google’s content network • Impression: each time an advert is shown • Keyword: a word found in a search query. For example, a search for ‘blue widgets’ includes the keywords ‘blue’ and ‘widgets’ • Organic results: also known as natural results. Search results served by the search engines algorithm. The search engine does not charge website owners to list these results. • Paid search advertising: usually refers to advertising on search engines, sometimes called PPC advertising. The advertiser pays only for each click on the advert. • Quality Score (QS): a measure used by Google Adwords to indicate how relevant a keyword is to an ad test and to a user’s search query. • Search term: the keywords a user enters when searching on a search engine. • Search Engine Results Page (SERP): the actual results returned to the user based on the search query. • Sponsored results: search engine results that are paid for by the advertiser. CHAPTER 11: ONLINE ADVERTISING • Ad server: the technology that places ads on websites • Animated GIF: a GIF (type of image file) which supports animations and allows a separate palette of 256 colours for each frame • Banner: an online advertisement in the form of a graphic image that appears on a web page. • Click through rate (CTR): CTR = Clicks / Impression % • Conversion: a visitor completing a target action • Cost per acquisition (CPA): refers to the cost of acquiring a new customer. The advertiser pays only when a desired action is achieved. • Cost per click (CPC): refers to when an advertiser pays only when their ad is clicked on, giving them a visitor to their site – typically from a search engine in pay per click search marketing • Cost per mille (CPM): amount paid for every 1000 impressions served of an advertisement • Display network: content websites that serve pay per click adverts from the same provider, such as Adwords. • Internet Service Provider(ISP): internet Service Provider – this is the company that provides you with access to the internet for example: MWEB or AOL • Key Performance Indicator (KPI): a metric that shows whether an objective i
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