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University of Toronto Mississauga
Earth Science

ERS103 Exam Review Final Exam 35 of course In two parts 1Similar in all respects to the two previous termtests 20 of course covering the final 13rd of the course Lecture Topics 13 to 15 2An Essay one page on either 15 of course aCompare and contrast which of the following two issues related to geology should be of greater concern to the public a the increasing atmospheric content of CO2b the declining availability of nonrenewable resources in the face of a continually growing human population and consumptionGive the reasons and the facts in support of your positionor bThe causes and effects of the earthquake and resulting Tsunami in northeastern Japan in March 2011 A very high standard is expected as toContent and Readability 3There will be a Bonus question if you complete parts 12The science and public issue on the topic of your group presentation 5 what did you learn about the sciencebehind your presentation what is its public significanceWhat Iwant is a description of your presentation eg we built a model or presenteddo nota series of interviews etcTHEME D Climate Change Effect of volcanoes on climatey Volcanoes create cooling effect on the climate o When a large volcanic eruption occurs ash gases and aerosols produced by an explosive eruption enter the stratosphereo It takes around only 2 weeks for them to circle the planet o They stay suspended in the stratosphere for many monthsyears bc theyre above the weather and dont get washed away by rainfall o The haze tuman they produce causes cooler average temperatures bc it absorbs incoming visible solar radiation during the day but doesnt absorb the infrared radiation that rises from the Earths surface at night Glacial Erosiony During glacial incorporation ice surrounds loose debrisy During glacial plucking a glacial breaks off and then carries away fragments of bedrock Plucking occurs when ice freezes onto rock that has already started to crack and separate from its substrate Movement of the ice lifts off pieces of the rock At the toe of the glacier ice may flatten sediment and trees slightly before flowing over them y Glacial abrasion as glaciers flow clasts oblomki embedded in ice act like teeth of a giant rasp napilnik and grind away the substrate This process produces very fine sediment aka rock flour Rasping by embedded sand yield shiny glacially polished surfaces and rasping by large clasts produces long gouges grooves or scratches 1cm1m across known as glacial striations y Over time glacial erosion can radically change a preexisting streamcarved landscapeo The process begins when freezing and thawing during the fall and spring help fracture the rock bordering the origin of the glacier o This rock falls on the ice or gets picked up at the base of the ice and moves downslope w the glaciers ERS103 Exam Review o As a result a bowlshaped depression aka cirque develops on the side of the mountain o If the ice later melts a tarn type of lake may be trapped by the glacial sediment that collects at the base of the cirque o An arte French for ridge a residual knifeedge ridge of rock separates 2 adjacent cirques o A pointed mountain peak surrounded by at least 3 cirques is called a horn o Glacial erosion severely modifies the shape of a valley a glacially eroded valley resembles a U with steep walls A Ushaped valley forms bc the combined processes of glacial abrasion and plucking not only lower the floor of the valley they also bevel skashivat its sides o Glacial erosion in mountains also modifies the intersections between tributaries and the trunk valleyo During glaciation tributary glaciers flow down side valleys into a trunk glacier o The trunk glacier cuts the floor of its valley down to a depth that far exceeds the depth cut by the tributary glaciers o Thus when the glaciers melt away the mouths of the tributary valleys perch at a higher elevation than the floor of the trunk valley These side valleys are called hanging valleys o The water in postglacial streams that flow down a hanging valley must cascade over a waterfall to reach the postglacial trunk stream y Erosion by ice sheets o Where an ice sheets spreads over a region of low relief glacial erosion creates a vast region of polished flat striated surfaceso Where an ice sheet spreads over a hilly area it deepens valleys and soothes hills o Glacially eroded hills end up being elongate in the direction of flow and are asymmetric o Glacial rasping soothes and bevels the upstream part of the hill creating a gentle slope whereas glacial plucking eats away at the downstream part making a steep slope o Ultimately the hill becomes a roche mountonee French for sheep rock bc it resembles sheep lying in a meadow y Fjords o Where a valley glacier meets the sea the glaciers base remains in contact w the ground until the water depth exceeds about 45ths of the glaciers thickness o Hence glaciers can continue carving Ushaped valley even below sea level o During ice age water extracted from the sea becomes locked in the ice sheets on land so sea level drops significantly o Therefore the floors of valleys cut by coastal glaciers during the last ice age were cut much deeper than present sea level o Today the sea level has flooded these deep valleys producing fjords o In the fjordland regions ie Alaska Chile New Zealand the walls of submerged Ushaped valleys rise straightfrom the sea as vertical cliffs up to 1000m high o A lake filing a glacially carved valley is also called a fjord
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