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Lisa Trentin

INTRODUCTION Antibiotics also known as anti -bacterial are substances or agents that either inhibits or destroys bacterial growth The term antibiotics was first used in 1942 by Selman Waksman and his partners in journal articles to describe any substance that was antagonistic to the growth of other organisms in high dilution.[2]Antibiotics was classified into bactericidal antibiotics that kill the bacteria directly and bacteriostatic antibiotics which prevent or inhibits them from growing .[3] BRIEF HISTORY : In the late 19th century, the better understanding of disease increased the curiosity of the researchers which led them to seek treatments to kill or inhibit the growth of microbes( such as bacteria). This proved difficult until the accidental discovery of penicillin in 1928 byAlexander Fleming.Aculture plate of Staphylococcus bacteria from an experiment that was left on his bench during a two-week leave and had now been contaminated with Penicillium notatum mold. When Fleming returned, he found the plate and observed that around the yellow-green mold growth was a different remove disc. Since the Staphylococcus bacteria were able to grow across the plate except near the contaminated area with mold, Fleming hypothesized that Penicillium was somehow capable of stopping bacterial growth. Although it took about 11 years for an Oxford University research team, which was under the supervision of guidance two biochemists Ernest Chain and Howard Florey, to isolate and purify penicillin. In a 1940 Lancet paper, they reported that the mice injected with a lethal dose of Streptococcus could be cured with penicillin. Initial testing on patients began immediately, and in a 1943 Lancet article Florey described the significant success of using penicillin to treat wounded soldiers in NorthAfrica. European production of penicillin was been limited by fighting during World War II, but by D-Day, June 6, 1944, US pharmaceutical companies were able to produce enough penicillin to treat all wounded British andAmerican troops. Penicillin quickly became a primary treatment for pneumonia, diphtheria, genital infections such syphilis and gonorrhea, scarlet fever, and other infections. For ", the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases” Fleming, Chain, and Florey received the Noble Prize for Medicine in 1945. [4] IMPORTANCE: Antibiotics had been looked upon as wonder drugs for a cause. Before the discovery of antibiotics, thousands of years ago, physicians used different types of plants, fungi and lichen to cure various kinds of infections and diseases without any knowledge of how they worked in the body. During that period, the practice of medicine was more of an experimental practice. Soup and patient isolation were the essential factors when trying to treat an infection. As soon as antibiotics was discovered, doctors relied more on them heavily. Antibiotics are one of the most prescribed drugs or medications in this modern age. They had been used to cure skin infections, burn wounds, infections such as neurosyphilis, respiratory and urinary tract infections, blood poisoning and other diseases caused by bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The discovery of antibiotics has made medicine, industry and farming evolve. Antibiotics have a broad use not only in medicine, but in agriculture. They were used in livestock production they were used as growth promoters they can be used in managing and curing clinical diseases in livestock (as a therapeutic) and as a prophylactic to prevent diseases in animals .[5] HOWANTIBIOTICS WORK: Antibiotics work to kill bacteria.As we know, bacteria are single-cell organisms, and when bacteria makes passes through the immune systems and start reproducing inside the body, they cause disease. Certain bacteria produce chemicals that damage or disable parts of the human body which is dangerous i.e. in an ear infection, bacteria have gotten into the inner ear. The body is works to fight the bacteria, but the immune system's natural processes produce inflammation and this inflammation in the ear cause pain. In order to kill this bacteria cells, and antibiotic has to be administered to destroy or inhibit the growth of bacteria and gets rid of the inflammation. So we can say an antibiotic is a selective poison which was chosen to so that it will kill the chosen bacterial cells, but not the cells in the human body. Different type of antibiotic affects different bacteria in different ways .i.e. an antibiotic may stop a bacterium's ability to convert glucose into energy, or its ability to construct its cell wall When this happens, the bacterium dies instead of reproducing.At the same time, the antibiotic acts only on the bacterium's cell-wall-building mechanism, not on human cells.Antibiotics cannot work on viruses because viruses are non-living. Abacterium is a living, reproducing organism while a virus is just a fragment of DNA(or RNA).A virus injects its DNAinto a living cell and has that cell reproduce more of the viral DNA. With a virus, there is nothing to "kill,", so antibiotics do not work
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