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ENV100Y5 Final: ENV100PACKAGE Final Review

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Monika Havelka
Study Guide

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What is environment?
Environment is more than just water, land, and air; it is everything around us which we interact with.
Environment includes:
Biotic: Living things
Animals, plants, trees, forests, soil etc.
Abiotic: Non-living things
Clouds, rocks, oceans etc.
Our built environment:
Roads, buildings, schools etc.
Social relationships and institutions:
Government, religion, political, economical, culture
-Environment dates from 1600s
-From an old French verb “environer” which means “to form a circle”.
Be careful when defining the “environment”:
Environment is a legal entity since it has legal standings
Environmental policies/practices need to be defined by various organizations (EX: Country
Ecuador has legal standings to the environment )
Environmental Science: explores the connection between humans and the physical and biological
world. It is the study of how the natural world works, how our environment affects us, and how we
affect our environment.
How natural resources and process support life
How the natural world works
How humans effect the environment
The Nature of Environmental Science:
Environmental scientists aim to understand how the Earth’s natural systems function
How humans are influenced by those systems and how we are influencing those systems

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Environmental Science is Interdisciplinary:
Environmental Science is interdisciplinary because more than one order (geology, chemistry, biology,
engineers etc.) is required to find a solution to the complex problems in our environment today,
which could be Abiotic, biotic or built environment problems.
Renewable natural
In Between
Non-renewable natural
Fresh water
Crude oil
Wind Energy
Wave Energy
Agricultural crops
(In Between resources have limited regeneration due to physical rate process) Renewable natural
resources such as sun, wind and wave energy are always renewed, whereas non-renewable natural
resources like copper, crude oil and coal are formed much slowly, which is why they are limited.
Environment is NOT the same as Environmentalism:
Environmentalism is a social movement dedicated to protecting the natural world, by warning people
of how are environment today is being affected.
What is science and how does it work?
Science is a systematic process for learning about our world and testing our understanding about it.
The term ‘science’ is also used to refer as the accumulated body of knowledge that arises from this
dynamic process of observation, testing, and discovery.

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The Scientific Method (Practised by individual researcher or research group)
Scientific method is a technique to test ideas through observation, questioning and experimentations.
Scientific method relies on the following assumptions:
The universe works according to natural laws.
All events arise from causes, which lead to other events.
We use logic, systematic testing and our senses to understand natural laws
Scientists first make observations and ask questions. Then they make a hypothesis, which gives
initial explanations. Then they use hypothesis to generate predictions, which are specific
statements that can be tested. The hypothesis then is reviewed and tested in order to decide
whether the hypothesis should be supported or rejected.
Different ways to test a hypothesis:
Manipulative experiment:
An experiment in which the scientist chooses to manipulate the independent variable
Natural experiment:
An experiment that is naturally conducted, rather than manipulating the independent
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