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ENV100Y5 Study Guide - Final Guide: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Keystone Species, Biogeochemical Cycle

Course Code
Monika Havelka
Study Guide

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Hadia Saeed
Quiz Review Information
Module 1:
Paradigm – a dominant view in science or society
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment found that – human activity has caused rapid, extensive
changes in the past 50 years - more rapid than at any other time in human history
Rock that occurs at earth’s surface, in the crust is less dense than rock in the mantle
Formation of the Solar System
oInterstellar cloud of gas and dust
oRotated and became a flattened disk
oPressure and temperature gradient formed
oNuclear fusion in the sun: Solar Nebula created
oCondensation of materials – materials condensed out of the cloud and rotated to hit
each other – like snow coming out of cloud
oAccretion of objects – materials stick together and start to build up – particles created
big clumps and grow eventually turning into plants
oPeriod of heavy meteorite bombardment
oDifferentiation  characteristics of planets which make it spherical and have clear orbit
around which allows it to be defined as a planet
East African Rift – modern day example of a continental divergent plate margin
CONVECTION – the driving force for plate tectonic movement/motion
Plate Tectonic Movement
oDivergent - B
Collision – A
oTransform Fault – D
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Hadia Saeed
oIntraplate environment – within the plate – E
Chemoautotrophic Hypothesis  life originated in the depths of the ocean near deep-sea
hydrothermal vents
Panspermia Hypothesis  hypothesis that the precursor chemicals for life were delivered to
Earth’s Surface by comets or meteorites
Evolution is termed a theory because it has been repeatedly shown to be broadly applicable,
and the weight of a great deal of scientific evidence and testing supports it
Earth is unique among the solar system planets because it has a BIOSPHERE
oEarly earth (4.5 billion YA) had virtually no ‘free’ oxygen
oQualitative Data – descriptive and expressed with words
oQuantitative Data – numerical and expressed with values
oControl and experimental group
oIndependent, dependant, and control variable
oExperiment – designed to test the validity of a hypothesis
oAbstract in a paper – provides a concise synopsis of the entire paper
Emergent Properties – properties of system not present in the individual component of the
oSystem characteristics not evident in individual components on their own
oPolarity is NOT an emergent property of a lake – would only be exhibited by a single
water molecule
What is a Burden? The mass of a substance in a reservoir
Residence Time  average time spent by a molecule of the material of interest in a reservoir
In a system at Steady state – there ARE inputs and outputs
Positive Feedback Loop – drives system towards an extreme
oPositive feedbacks are self-perpetuating
Sustainable development
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Hadia Saeed
oWe should use resources to satisfy current needs, while being careful not to
compromise their future availability
Abiotic – non-living
Biotic – living
Earths Layers
oCore: Made of Fe-Ni metal
Inner core = solid
Outer core = liquid
oMantle: Made of relatively dense rock – not as dense as core
‘WEAK zone’ – near melting point
oThe Crust
Oceanic Crust – Basalt, Dense, thin
Continental Crust – Granite, less dense, thick
Water Characteristic property – dissolves many chemicals that are necessary for life
What is the name given to the time between about 540 and 600 million years ago, when there
was a rapid increase in the number, diversity, and complexity of species?
oThe Cambrian Explosion
Module 2:
Nitrogen Fixation: process (or set of processes) by which mutualistic bacteria move nitrogen
from the atmosphere to soil
Autotrophs – serve as a primary producer in the food chain, obtain energy and nutrients by
harnessing sunlight through photosynthesis or through oxidation obtaining chemical energy(also
called photoautotrophs of chemoautotrophs)
Largest reservoir of H2O in hydro cycle  the ocean
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