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ENV310H5 Study Guide - Final Guide: Virgin Lands Campaign, Corporate Social Responsibility, Tsetse Fly


Department
Environment
Course Code
ENV310H5
Professor
Barbara Murck
Study Guide
Final

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Roots of sustainability
- The sustainability imperative
- The concept of progress
- Concepts of nature environment and early recognition of human impacts
Industrial revolution: turning point
1) Roots of modern environmental movement
2) Roots of modern economics
3) Roots of development theories
4) Roots of modern governance structures
The concept of progress
Progress: the idea that civilization is moving progressively in a positive or desirable direction
- Development of a linear concept of time: grew out of Islamic and Judeo-Christian tradition
- Furthered by religious philosophies that focus on a genesis or creation, followed by spiritual
progress and progressive moral perfection of human kind
Has become secularized and almost synonymous with Western modernity, technological advancement
Resource shortages
- Concerns about resources shortages especially wood, grew in the 16th 17th 18th centuries
- Scholars wrote about what we would call “sustainable use” through balancing harvesting at old
trees with growth of new trees
- German scholars coined the term ewige wald (eternal forest) to describe this balance
- Concept arose that resource depletion might threaten human well-being in present and future
generations
Industrial revolution: turning point
- Human progress gradually became equated with economic growth and material advancement
- Domination over nature : solidified in 1700s
Necessary and acceptable to pillage nature for resource to support economic growth
Only industrial goods or marketable products have actual value
Technological progress equated with human progress and moral perfection
Progress as the secularized heir to the religious concept of salvation
Population and individual freedom
- Concept/concerns about population also started to grow in the 18th century
Thomas Malthus (1798)
Threat that food production would outstrip pop. Growth.
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- Important is 18th and 19th century concepts of progress. Individual freedom and self-interest
vs. The collective good
Attention shifts to coal and oil
- Potential for shortage continued to be the main focus of the need to use resource responsibly
- Focus shifted to coal (19th C) and then to oil (early 20th C)
- Utilitarianism
- 3 important voices in the 19th C
1. J. S. Mill: Principle of Political economy (1848)
2. W. S. Jevans: The coal question (1866)
3. G. P. Marsh: Man and Nature (1864)
The stationery state
- If the earth must see that great portion of its pleasantness which it owes to things that the
unlimited increase of wealth and population would extirpate from it for the mere purpose of
enabling it toot support a larger but not a better or a happier population. I sincerely hope for
the sake of posterity that they will be content to be stationery long before necessity compels
them to it.
Summary to early 20th century
- Human spiritual connection to environment
- Early recognition of negative human impacts on the ENV
- Concept of progress : become secularized
- After the industrial revolution
Increase in consumption, population growth and depletion of critical resource
Growing concerns about negative impacts on standards of living for present and future
generations
19th – 20th century: Four Threads
1) Conservation, preservation, modern environmental movement
2) Modern economics theory: labor movement
3) Development Theory: Distribution equity quality of life
4) Emergence of international governance structures (UN, civic society)
Roots of modern environmental movement
- Preservationist: early 1800s
National parks movement
John Muir: Sierra Club, Yosemite
- Conservationist: late 1800s
Manage wildlife, resource for human use
George Perkins Marsh
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Dicks Unlimited (1972)
Gifford Prichot: “wise use”
- Modern Environmentalism: 1960s and early 1970s
Rachel Carson: Silent Spring (1962)
Events that raised public awareness, such as Love Canal and Cuyahoga River Fire (1969)
First photos of Earth (1967)
Tragedy of the Commons (1968)
Adam Smith: “Father of Modern Economics”
- Malthus, Mill, Marx
- John Maynard Keynes 1930 ~ 1940s
- Foundation of modern macroeconomics
- State intervention necessary in order to moderate negative impacts of the market such as
disparity between rich and poor
- Modern actions like stimulating the economy is time of recession
Neoclassical economics: Mainstream economics
- Production ---- Supply ---- Demand
- 4 Assumptions of neoclassical economics
1) Resources are infinite or substitutable
2) Long-term effects should be discounted
3) Costs and benefits are internal
4) Growth is good
- These have specific implications for the environment and natural resources
Attitudes towards growth and resource management
- Early 20th Century to 1960s
Expectations of unlimited wealth and growth
Substitutability of natural and human capital
Sir John Hicks: Value and capital (1941)
- Technology as the savior of everything, market primacy
Ecological Economics
- Applies principles of ecology and systems theory to the analysis of economics systems
- Growth paradigm will eventually fail, resource depletion will negatively affect the economy
- Concept of steady-state economy
Environmental Economics
- Modifying the principles of neoclassical economics to address environmental challenges and
limitations
- Dealing with eternities and discounting, true costs of environmental impacts and resources
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