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Geography Exam Study Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga

Geography of the Service Economy Urban BasedVariations in skill levels and incomeImplications for developed economiesDivisionsTertiary retail personal servicesQuaternary research information managementQuinary ExecutiveFlexibility in locationtechnologyHard Skills Soft SkillsInstitutional thicknessPersonal contacts GRAPH For Exam Shows manufacturing employment and services employmentDefines the difference between manufacturing economy and service economy and how it affects the urban areaMost manufacturing jobs fall in the middleincome economy Service jobs are either low income or very high income There is no middle incomeMiddle class is disappearing from the economyMost who are leaving the manufacturing economy do not have the skills to go to the service economyThe skills set required in the services economy are the skills coming out of the university educationMany manufacturing employees are older so they have difficulty fitting into the service economySecond GRAPH For exam There has been very little change in income levels in the bottom 60As manufacturing economy has disappeared in the US it has created a flat incomeDifference between bottom and top Bottom makes the money from salary Top makes their money through inheritance and their ability to invest in the economy They are old rich people The reason why manufacturing has disappeared in the developed world economy is outsourcingThey are reducing their cost by getting low cost from somewhere elseGlobalizationGlobalization Freedom of tradeThere is a globalization which is trading across space Integration between countries Freedom of investmentAssociated with the outsourcing of jobs and its all about generating more money and more capitalMost people did not want investment in their countries from other countries earlyWhat is requiredCountries should open their marketsdismantle tradeinvestment barriersWhy does these barriers existBarriers exist to protect jobs in the domestic economy and the moneyWhy remove themThey were barriers to growth The Hidden Face of GlobalizationRace to the bottomIdea is that in order for corporations to be profitable they need access to cheap labour There is constant rush for cheapest labourCut and RunIf the labour cost increases you locate somewhere elseLiving WagesThis is about the exploitation of labourLiving wage varies substantially from location to locationLiving wage is lower in India than it is in CanadaGlobalizationDeveloping Countries Women constitute80 of workforceThey are very young womenMakes them a very exploitative form of labourMenmanagers supervisors securityWomenassembly line workWomen workersYoung 1325SingleLittle formal education
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