ENV100Y5 Final: Exams Review

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Monika Havelka

ENV100 Hadia Saeed Quiz Review Information Module 1:  Paradigm – a dominant view in science or society  Millennium Ecosystem Assessment found that – human activity has caused rapid, extensive changes in the past 50 years - more rapid than at any other time in human history  Rock that occurs at earth’s surface, in the crust is less dense than rock in the mantle  Formation of the Solar System o Interstellar cloud of gas and dust o Rotated and became a flattened disk o Pressure and temperature gradient formed o Nuclear fusion in the sun: Solar Nebula created o Condensation of materials – materials condensed out of the cloud and rotated to hit each other – like snow coming out of cloud o Accretion of objects – materials stick together and start to build up – particles created big clumps and grow eventually turning into plants o Period of heavy meteorite bombardment o Differentiation  characteristics of planets which make it spherical and have clear orbit around which allows it to be defined as a planet  East African Rift – modern day example of a continental divergent plate margin  CONVECTION – the driving force for plate tectonic movement/motion  Plate Tectonic Movement o Divergent - B o Convergent  Collision – A  Subduction o Transform Fault – D ENV100 Hadia Saeed o Intraplate environment – within the plate – E  Chemoautotrophic Hypothesis  life originated in the depths of the ocean near deep-sea hydrothermal vents  Panspermia Hypothesis  hypothesis that the precursor chemicals for life were delivered to Earth’s Surface by comets or meteorites  Evolution is termed a theory because it has been repeatedly shown to be broadly applicable, and the weight of a great deal of scientific evidence and testing supports it  Earth is unique among the solar system planets because it has a BIOSPHERE o Early earth (4.5 billion YA) had virtually no ‘free’ oxygen  Research: o Qualitative Data – descriptive and expressed with words o Quantitative Data – numerical and expressed with values o Control and experimental group o Independent, dependant, and control variable o Experiment – designed to test the validity of a hypothesis o Abstract in a paper – provides a concise synopsis of the entire paper  Emergent Properties – properties of system not present in the individual component of the system o System characteristics not evident in individual components on their own o Polarity is NOT an emergent property of a lake – would only be exhibited by a single water molecule  What is a Burden? The mass of a substance in a reservoir  Residence Time  average time spent by a molecule of the material of interest in a reservoir  In a system at Steady state – there ARE inputs and outputs  Positive Feedback Loop – drives system towards an extreme o Positive feedbacks are self-perpetuating  Sustainable development ENV100 Hadia Saeed o We should use resources to satisfy current needs, while being careful not to compromise their future availability  Abiotic – non-living  Biotic – living  Earths Layers o Core: Made of Fe-Ni metal  Inner core = solid  Outer core = liquid o Mantle: Made of relatively dense rock – not as dense as core  Asthenosphere  ‘WEAK zone’ – near melting point o The Crust  Oceanic Crust – Basalt, Dense, thin  Continental Crust – Granite, less dense, thick o CRUST + TOP OF MANTLE = LITHOSPHERE  Water Characteristic property – dissolves many chemicals that are necessary for life  What is the name given to the time between about 540 and 600 million years ago, when there was a rapid increase in the number, diversity, and complexity of species? o The Cambrian Explosion Module 2:  Nitrogen Fixation: process (or set of processes) by which mutualistic bacteria move nitrogen from the atmosphere to soil  Autotrophs – serve as a primary producer in the food chain, obtain energy and nutrients by harnessing sunlight through photosynthesis or through oxidation obtaining chemical energy(also called photoautotrophs of chemoautotrophs)  Largest reservoir of H2O in hydro cycle  the ocean ENV100 Hadia Saeed  Everything in an ecosystem is interconnected in subsystems within the ecosystem, and within the broader environment- ecosystems are nested and hierarchical  Phosphorus biogeochemical cycle: o Bones, teeth, no significant atmospheric form, limiting factor for plant growth, and minerals  Carbon biogeochemical cycle: o Fluxes vary a lot in time and space, complex cycle with many reservoirs, respiration, decomposition, photosynthesis, oxidized, reduced, organic and inorganic forms  Ecosystems – energy flows through, nutrients are recycled  Natural selection produces adaptations – driven by natural environmental constraints  Allopatric speciation: o The emergence of new species as a result of geographic isolation of biological populations of the same species, to an extent that prevents or interferes with mating  Types of evolution o Convergent evolution – same types of species in 2 very different locations  Background extinctions: normal extinctions that happen over time as a result of competition and environmental changes  Keystone Species o A species with a particularly important role or far-reaching impact on an ecosystem  Which one of the following is the most likely outcome if a keystone species is removed from a community? o Structure of the community will change  The fossil record indicates that as antelopes evolved longer limbs to run faster, their predators evolved bigger brains (and thus, presumably, better hunting capabilities)  Intraspecific Competition o Ex. two male moose fighting over potential mates  Competition represented by –/–  Malthus’s Basic Theory – point of crises occurs when population size = resources ENV100 Hadia Saeed  Canada – post-industrial demographic transition  Population that will grow most slowly in the near future: the one like a diamond  Components to a functional ecosystem o Producers, consumers, decomposers, and abiotic environment  Fundamental niche is bigger than the realized niche of an organism  NOT density-dependant limiting factor on population growth – climate change  Resource partitioning – increases likelihood of similar food and habit interests and if they can coexist  Why don’t snakes have to eat as much as mammals of the same size o Snakes don’t need to expend as much energy n thermoregulation, as do mammals  IPATS Model o Impact  Transitional stage in demographic transition model – birth rate is high and steady and death rates are falling Module 3:  Significant soil management problem associated with over-irrigation in hot, arid climates is salinization  Leguminous plants are able to do nitrogen fixation – used for nitrogen depleted fields  Physical weathering – ex. snow boulder crashing on a mountain slope and breaking into pieces while smashing into other rocks  Chemical weathering – ex. cemetery limestone grave markers are smooth and the inscription is very hard to read  Holistic Management o Managing livestock herds to mimic the movement patterns of wild herds  What is Soll? o Made up of mineral matter, organic matter and gases with microorganisms o Main function is to support plant growth – organisms use it as well such as bacteria ENV100 Hadia Saeed  Green Revolution o Certain grain crops were genetically modified to express better and more preferred traits – growth productivity, etc.  FALSE – only a few select varieties of pesticides are licensed for use in Canada  FALSE – Food production overall has increased, but food production per person has decreased dramatically in the recent past  Cultivar – a variety of plant that has been intentionally selected for and is maintained by cultivation  Monoculture DO NOT increase crop diversity  IUCN Red List o Global inventory of conservation status of biological species  Theory of Island Biogeography  explains how biodiversity is affected by habitat fragmentation o Based on concept that a stable number of species is reached when immigration balances extinctions  Islands closest to mainland tend to have more species  Evenness – component of species diversity which tells us the extent to which numbers of individuals of different species in an area are equal or skewed  Water/Soil Erosion: water flow that removes soil from one location on Earth and transports to another o Splash, sheet rill, and gully  In an area with a cool, dry climate it may take thousands of years for the formation of a topsoil horizon capable of supporting substantial plant life or crops  Soil profile - term that describes a vertical section of soil that includes all of its horizons  Genetic engineering allows scientists to be able to transfer one specifically selected gene instead of thousands from one organism to another  Compared to wild capture fisheries, aquaculture operations tend to have significantly higher yield in terms of kg of fish per square meter, per year  Salmon aquaculture is relatively energy-efficient, compared to other aquaculture approaches, mainly because salmon spend a significant part of their lifecycle in the wild ENV100 Hadia Saeed  Saying that shrimp aquaculture has a large “ecological footprint” means that one hectare of shrimp cage typically requires an area of ecosystem support many times as large as the cage itself  Which one of the following factors is considered to have been a major driver of the collapse of the civilization on Easter Island (Rapa Nui)? o Mismanagement of island resources  Ecological Niche o Niche  an organisms use of resources and its functional role in a community o Fundamental Niche  optimal conditions o Realized Niche  a subset of fundamental niche due to species interactions  Why are tropical areas rich in species? o Time Hypothesis – old and long evolutionary history o Climatic Stability Hypothesis – stable climate and aseasonal with predictability o Productivity Hypothesis – highly productive and represented in large areas  Measures of spatial patterns of species richness o α–diversity = number of species in local area of homogeneous habitat o γ–diversity = number of species in large geographic area that comprises many habitats o β–diversity = turnover in species from one local area to another  β=γ/ α  If the same species are found in different habitats over a wide arγ= α,hen: and β= 1  If different species are found in different habitats over a wide aβ > 1then: o LOW beta diversity – salad cut up and mixed all together  Generalists – go anywhere, do anything o HIGH beta diversity – veget
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