ENV100Y5 Final: Exams Review
Premium

15 Pages
38 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Environment
Course
ENV100Y5
Professor
Monika Havelka
Semester
Fall

Description
ENV100 Hadia Saeed Quiz Review Information Module 1:  Paradigm – a dominant view in science or society  Millennium Ecosystem Assessment found that – human activity has caused rapid, extensive changes in the past 50 years - more rapid than at any other time in human history  Rock that occurs at earth’s surface, in the crust is less dense than rock in the mantle  Formation of the Solar System o Interstellar cloud of gas and dust o Rotated and became a flattened disk o Pressure and temperature gradient formed o Nuclear fusion in the sun: Solar Nebula created o Condensation of materials – materials condensed out of the cloud and rotated to hit each other – like snow coming out of cloud o Accretion of objects – materials stick together and start to build up – particles created big clumps and grow eventually turning into plants o Period of heavy meteorite bombardment o Differentiation  characteristics of planets which make it spherical and have clear orbit around which allows it to be defined as a planet  East African Rift – modern day example of a continental divergent plate margin  CONVECTION – the driving force for plate tectonic movement/motion  Plate Tectonic Movement o Divergent - B o Convergent  Collision – A  Subduction o Transform Fault – D ENV100 Hadia Saeed o Intraplate environment – within the plate – E  Chemoautotrophic Hypothesis  life originated in the depths of the ocean near deep-sea hydrothermal vents  Panspermia Hypothesis  hypothesis that the precursor chemicals for life were delivered to Earth’s Surface by comets or meteorites  Evolution is termed a theory because it has been repeatedly shown to be broadly applicable, and the weight of a great deal of scientific evidence and testing supports it  Earth is unique among the solar system planets because it has a BIOSPHERE o Early earth (4.5 billion YA) had virtually no ‘free’ oxygen  Research: o Qualitative Data – descriptive and expressed with words o Quantitative Data – numerical and expressed with values o Control and experimental group o Independent, dependant, and control variable o Experiment – designed to test the validity of a hypothesis o Abstract in a paper – provides a concise synopsis of the entire paper  Emergent Properties – properties of system not present in the individual component of the system o System characteristics not evident in individual components on their own o Polarity is NOT an emergent property of a lake – would only be exhibited by a single water molecule  What is a Burden? The mass of a substance in a reservoir  Residence Time  average time spent by a molecule of the material of interest in a reservoir  In a system at Steady state – there ARE inputs and outputs  Positive Feedback Loop – drives system towards an extreme o Positive feedbacks are self-perpetuating  Sustainable development ENV100 Hadia Saeed o We should use resources to satisfy current needs, while being careful not to compromise their future availability  Abiotic – non-living  Biotic – living  Earths Layers o Core: Made of Fe-Ni metal  Inner core = solid  Outer core = liquid o Mantle: Made of relatively dense rock – not as dense as core  Asthenosphere  ‘WEAK zone’ – near melting point o The Crust  Oceanic Crust – Basalt, Dense, thin  Continental Crust – Granite, less dense, thick o CRUST + TOP OF MANTLE = LITHOSPHERE  Water Characteristic property – dissolves many chemicals that are necessary for life  What is the name given to the time between about 540 and 600 million years ago, when there was a rapid increase in the number, diversity, and complexity of species? o The Cambrian Explosion Module 2:  Nitrogen Fixation: process (or set of processes) by which mutualistic bacteria move nitrogen from the atmosphere to soil  Autotrophs – serve as a primary producer in the food chain, obtain energy and nutrients by harnessing sunlight through photosynthesis or through oxidation obtaining chemical energy(also called photoautotrophs of chemoautotrophs)  Largest reservoir of H2O in hydro cycle  the ocean ENV100 Hadia Saeed  Everything in an ecosystem is interconnected in subsystems within the ecosystem, and within the broader environment- ecosystems are nested and hierarchical  Phosphorus biogeochemical cycle: o Bones, teeth, no significant atmospheric form, limiting factor for plant growth, and minerals  Carbon biogeochemical cycle: o Fluxes vary a lot in time and space, complex cycle with many reservoirs, respiration, decomposition, photosynthesis, oxidized, reduced, organic and inorganic forms  Ecosystems – energy flows through, nutrients are recycled  Natural selection produces adaptations – driven by natural environmental constraints  Allopatric speciation: o The emergence of new species as a result of geographic isolation of biological populations of the same species, to an extent that prevents or interferes with mating  Types of evolution o Convergent evolution – same types of species in 2 very different locations  Background extinctions: normal extinctions that happen over time as a result of competition and environmental changes  Keystone Species o A species with a particularly important role or far-reaching impact on an ecosystem  Which one of the following is the most likely outcome if a keystone species is removed from a community? o Structure of the community will change  The fossil record indicates that as antelopes evolved longer limbs to run faster, their predators evolved bigger brains (and thus, presumably, better hunting capabilities)  Intraspecific Competition o Ex. two male moose fighting over potential mates  Competition represented by –/–  Malthus’s Basic Theory – point of crises occurs when population size = resources ENV100 Hadia Saeed  Canada – post-industrial demographic transition  Population that will grow most slowly in the near future: the one like a diamond  Components to a functional ecosystem o Producers, consumers, decomposers, and abiotic environment  Fundamental niche is bigger than the realized niche of an organism  NOT density-dependant limiting factor on population growth – climate change  Resource partitioning – increases likelihood of similar food and habit interests and if they can coexist  Why don’t snakes have to eat as much as mammals of the same size o Snakes don’t need to expend as much energy n thermoregulation, as do mammals  IPATS Model o Impact  Transitional stage in demographic transition model – birth rate is high and steady and death rates are falling Module 3:  Significant soil management problem associated with over-irrigation in hot, arid climates is salinization  Leguminous plants are able to do nitrogen fixation – used for nitrogen depleted fields  Physical weathering – ex. snow boulder crashing on a mountain slope and breaking into pieces while smashing into other rocks  Chemical weathering – ex. cemetery limestone grave markers are smooth and the inscription is very hard to read  Holistic Management o Managing livestock herds to mimic the movement patterns of wild herds  What is Soll? o Made up of mineral matter, organic matter and gases with microorganisms o Main function is to support plant growth – organisms use it as well such as bacteria ENV100 Hadia Saeed  Green Revolution o Certain grain crops were genetically modified to express better and more preferred traits – growth productivity, etc.  FALSE – only a few select varieties of pesticides are licensed for use in Canada  FALSE – Food production overall has increased, but food production per person has decreased dramatically in the recent past  Cultivar – a variety of plant that has been intentionally selected for and is maintained by cultivation  Monoculture DO NOT increase crop diversity  IUCN Red List o Global inventory of conservation status of biological species  Theory of Island Biogeography  explains how biodiversity is affected by habitat fragmentation o Based on concept that a stable number of species is reached when immigration balances extinctions  Islands closest to mainland tend to have more species  Evenness – component of species diversity which tells us the extent to which numbers of individuals of different species in an area are equal or skewed  Water/Soil Erosion: water flow that removes soil from one location on Earth and transports to another o Splash, sheet rill, and gully  In an area with a cool, dry climate it may take thousands of years for the formation of a topsoil horizon capable of supporting substantial plant life or crops  Soil profile - term that describes a vertical section of soil that includes all of its horizons  Genetic engineering allows scientists to be able to transfer one specifically selected gene instead of thousands from one organism to another  Compared to wild capture fisheries, aquaculture operations tend to have significantly higher yield in terms of kg of fish per square meter, per year  Salmon aquaculture is relatively energy-efficient, compared to other aquaculture approaches, mainly because salmon spend a significant part of their lifecycle in the wild ENV100 Hadia Saeed  Saying that shrimp aquaculture has a large “ecological footprint” means that one hectare of shrimp cage typically requires an area of ecosystem support many times as large as the cage itself  Which one of the following factors is considered to have been a major driver of the collapse of the civilization on Easter Island (Rapa Nui)? o Mismanagement of island resources  Ecological Niche o Niche  an organisms use of resources and its functional role in a community o Fundamental Niche  optimal conditions o Realized Niche  a subset of fundamental niche due to species interactions  Why are tropical areas rich in species? o Time Hypothesis – old and long evolutionary history o Climatic Stability Hypothesis – stable climate and aseasonal with predictability o Productivity Hypothesis – highly productive and represented in large areas  Measures of spatial patterns of species richness o α–diversity = number of species in local area of homogeneous habitat o γ–diversity = number of species in large geographic area that comprises many habitats o β–diversity = turnover in species from one local area to another  β=γ/ α  If the same species are found in different habitats over a wide arγ= α,hen: and β= 1  If different species are found in different habitats over a wide aβ > 1then: o LOW beta diversity – salad cut up and mixed all together  Generalists – go anywhere, do anything o HIGH beta diversity – veget
More Less

Related notes for ENV100Y5

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit