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ERS120H5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Subduction, Wave Height, 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake And Tsunami


Department
Earth Science
Course Code
ERS120H5
Professor
Henry Halls
Study Guide
Midterm

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Q1. If you travelled from the surface to the centre of the Earth, describe the four major
layers you would encounter in terms of their physical and chemical properties. Suggest how
each layer influences (or may influence) our life on the Earths surface.
THE HISTORY OF EARTH
The Earth, as we know it today, is thought to have formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago.
With the passing of hundreds of millions of years, the early Earth was created by accretion. It
continued to transform due to asteroidal barrage by a special kind of meteorite known as a
Carbonaceous Chondrite (a carbon-rich stony meteorite). These chondrites in particular have
much more of the element Iron (Fe) than typical mantle rocks and are very similar in
composition to the Sun (except for the absence of a few gaseous elements). They are known to
have an age of roughly 4550 million years which is early in the evolution of the solar system.
Therefore, the Earth was built up by the successive impacts of these carbonaceous chondrite
asteroids drawn into it as a result of gravity. Eventually, the interior of the Earth would begin to
heat up under gravitational pressure, heat of asteroidal impacts as well as the enormous heat
generated by the decay of naturally occurring radioactive elements such as Potassium and
Uranium. The hot interior of the Earth serves the role of a blast furnace where liquid iron is freed
from the interior of carbonaceous chondrite as carbon draws off iron from iron-rich ores. This
liquid iron then gradually falls to the Earths centre due to its high density where it forms the
Core. So, deep in the Earth while the iron is separating out and sinking, water vapor, gases and
other light compounds are expelled and move upwards towards the surface where they form the
Earths Crust, Oceans and Atmosphere. The material that is left behind has a composition and
density very close to the Earths Mantle. This entire process by which the heating of a uniform
starting material produces different compositional fractions that separate out according to their
density is known as differentiation.
Therefore, as we go down to the centre of the Earth, the following four layers can be
distinguished based upon their physical and chemical composition:
THE CRUST
The Crust is the outermost layer of the Earth made up of silicate rock materials. The crust makes
up only about 0.1% to 1% of the Earths radius and is the thinnest of all the layers. Geologists
distinguish between two different types of crustoceanic crust which underlies the sea floor,
and continental crust which underlies continents. The crust is not simply cooled mantle, but
rather consists of a variety of rocks that differ in chemical composition from mantle rock. The
thickness of the crust varies on the land and on the ocean. For example, oceanic crust is only 7 to
10 km thick and consists of fairly uniform layers. The top layer consists of a blanket of sediments,
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generally less than 1 km thick, composed of clay and tiny shells that have settled like snow.
Beneath this blanket, the oceanic crust consists of a layer of basalt and, below that, a layer of
gabbro. On the other hand, the continental crust is about 35 to 40 km thick and varies much more
than the oceanic crust. The continental crust contains a great variety of rocks ranging from mafic
to felsic in composition, but on an average is less mafic than oceanic crust. It consists of lighter
minerals such as quartz, silica and feldspar. This is one of the most active layers of the Earth as
activity of the plate tectonics results in earthquakes in the Earths crust thereby leading to the
formation of various geographical features such as mountains, valleys and oceans. This layer is
also important as it is the source of mineral deposits and provides soil for crops.
THE MANTLE
Refer textbook page 49 and incorporate additional points below:
Largest layer of Earth in terms of volume
Most of the Earths mass (about 80%) lies in the Mantle
Made up of Iron, Aluminum, Calcium, Magnesium, Silicone and Oxygen
Consists entirely of an ultramafic rock called Peridotite, which contains the mineral
Olivine hence Olivine is most common mineral
This layer is the source of volcanic magma which provides fertilizer for its surroundings
Mantle is denser, made of more thorough magnesium materials
Mantle flows and is now as rigid as crust
Driving force of plate tectonics which we know shapes Earth
Source of minerals such as Diamonds
THE OUTER CORE
Refer textbook page 52 and incorporate additional points below:
Liquid, made of iron and nickel
Density is very high but lesser than pure molten iron hence scientists are of opinion
that sulfur and oxygen may be present in outer core (this is due to fact that they dissolve
easily in liquid iron)
Just like the mantle, iron alloy of outer core can flow and convect
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