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ERS120H5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Erms, Turnstile, Hypocenter


Department
Earth Science
Course Code
ERS120H5
Professor
Shawn Collins
Study Guide
Midterm

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ERS120:PlanetEarthSpring,2012
TERMTEST1REVIEWSHEET
Examwillcover:lectures2to9andLabs1and2
Examformat:multiplechoice(40points),shortanswer/matching/sketches(40points)
Lecture2:FORMATIONOFTHEUNIVERSE,SOLARSYSTEMANDEARTH
‐Describetheformationofthesolarsystem,includingtheformationofthesun,therockyinner
planetsandthegaseousouterplanets.
‐Explaintheprocesseswhichledtheearthtoshapeintoasphereandbecomeinternally
layered.
‐Explainthetheoryfortheformationofthemoon.
‐Describethedifferencebetweenagaseousouterplanetandarockyinnerplanet.Namethe
gaseousandrockyplanets.
‐Describethebasiccompositionandthicknessofthemajorlayersoftheearth:crust,mantle,
innercore,outercore.
‐Explainhowandwhymeteoriteshelpusunderstandthecompositionoftheearth.
‐Knowtheageoftheearthandhowmeteoriteshavebeenusedtodetermineit.
‐Describekimberlitepipes,howtheyform,andtheimportanceofthexenolithstheycarryin
determiningthecompositionoftheearth.
‐DefinePandSwavesandexplainwhySwavesdon’ttravelthroughliquid.
‐Describehowseismicwaveshelpusunderstandthestructureoftheearth.
‐ExplaintheoriginofEarth’smagneticfield.
Lecture3:TECTONICSTHEORY
‐Describethedifferencebetweencontinentalandoceaniccrust(approximatethicknessand
density)andbetweenthelithosphereandasthenosphere(approximatethicknessandrigidity).
‐Explainthebasictectonicmodel(thin,rigidlithosphereoverweakasthenosphere,interacting
plates).
‐Defineisostacyanddescribehowitexplainswhytheoceansarelowandthecontinentsare
high.
‐Listandexplaintheevidenceforcontinentaldrift(fitofthecontinents,matchingrockunits,
mountainbelts,fossils,paleoclimatebeltsandglaciations).
‐RecognizetheapproximateconfigurationofPangea.
‐Describetheevidencefromtheoceans(topography,heatflow,volcanoes,earthquakes)which
ledtoanunderstandingofseafloorspreading.
‐Explaintheformationofmagneticstripesontheseafloor.
‐Describetheevolutionofseafloorfromtheridgetothesubductionzoneintermsoftheageof
theoceancrust,itsdepthbelowsealevel,itsmagneticsignal(normalorreverse)andthe
amountofsedimentcover.
‐Explainwhyearthquakesoccurfromshallowtodeepatsubductionzones.
‐Explainwhycontinentalcrustcannotbesubducted.
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Lecture4:TECTONICSBOUNDARIES
‐Nameanddefinethethreetypesofplateboundaries.
‐Describetheevolutionofadivergentboundaryfrominitialcontinentalriftingtoamidocean
rift.
‐Knowwhereanexampleofacontinentalriftoccursonearthandsomeoftheassociated
features.
‐Describeandbeabletodrawthebasicstructureofoceaniccrust(magmachamber,sheeted
dykes,pillowbasalts,sediment).
‐Explainsomeofthedifferentfeaturesfoundatoceanocean,oceancontinentandcontinent
continentconvergentzones.Givenarealworldexampleofeach.
‐Describesomeofthefeaturesassociatedwithacontinentaltransformfaultandgiveareal
worldexample.
‐Explaintheoriginofhotspots,andhowtheytellusaboutplatemotion.
‐Describethetwodrivingmechanismofplatetectonics,slabpullandmantleconvection(and
alsoexplainhowconvectionworks).
Lecture6:EARTHQUAKES
‐Definetheepicenterandhypocenterofanearthquake.
‐Nameanddescribethethreetypesoffaultsalongwhichearthquakesoccurandrelateeachto
theappropriateplatetectonicsetting(convergent,divergentortransform).
‐Beabletorecognizethedifferencebetweennormal,thrustandstrikeslipfaults.
‐DescribetherelationshipbetweenplatetectonicsandEarthquakes.Wheredomostoccurwith
respecttoplateboundaries?Wherearetheyshallow?Wherearetheydeep?Wheredothe
biggestearthquakesoccur?
‐Explainhowaseismographworkstorecordanearthquake.
‐Nameanddescribeeachofthethreetypesofwaves(P,Sandsurface)producedby
earthquakes.Knowwhichtravelfastestandwhichhavethelargestamplitudeatthesurface.
‐RecognizethearrivalofP,Ssurfaceandaftershocksonaseismogramandexplainwhytheir
arrivalisstaggered.
‐ExplainhowPandSarrivaltimescanbeusedtocalculatetheepicenterofanearthquakeusing
thePSintervalfromthreeseismicstations.
‐Describeourabilitytomakelongandshorttermearthquakepredictions.
‐Explainhowatsunamiforms.
‐Compareatsunamitoanormaloceanwaveintermsofwavespeed,periodandlength.
Lecture6:EARTHHISTORY
‐KnowwhentheHadeanEonoccurredanddescribethestructureandtheconditionsonthe
surfaceoftheearthatthattime.
‐KnowwhentheArcheanEonoccurredanddescribemajoreventsthatoccurredinthistime,
includingthebeginningofformationofcontinentalcrustandthedevelopmentofsinglecelled
life.
‐Describethecompositionandstructureofgreenstonebelts,andtheplatetectonicswhich
formedthem.
‐KnowwhentheProterozoicEonoccurred.
‐ExplainandsketchthesixstepsoftheWilsonCycle.
‐Nameandknowtheorderinwhichfourmajorsupercontinentsformed.
‐RecognizethepartsofNorthAmericathatcorrespondtotheformationofthesupercontinents
Arctica,Nena,RodiniaandPangeaandthebreakupofPangea.
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