Lives in time and place – Effects of contextual change, caused by particular historical events on
individual life trajectories
Substantive Birth Cohort – Ideas captured by ‘lives in time and place’. It represents generation, gender,
ethnicity, race, and class.
Timing of Lives – Relates to social time, the timing of significant transitions, historical time, and duration
and sequence of life events.
Generation: The subjectively meaning cohort into which one is born. This concept is similar to the ‘lives
in time and place’ concept in Elder’s life-course perspective but reflects Manheim’s ideas involving the
sociological relevance of being born at a particular historical time in a given society”
Habitus: A relatively stable set of social attitudes, lifestyles, values, beliefs, dispositions, and
expectations that social actors hold, which reflect their social circumstances (such as racialization, class,
gender, sexuality, abilities, etc.). A person represents the embodiment of these social structures.
Biological Determinism: people’s dispositions, attitudes, behaviors, social roles, and other personal
qualities are determined by their biology. (i.e. men=doctors, women=nurses)
Gender Essentialism: Males and females are born with different natures. Thus, gender is culturally
determined (Sex = gender) a social construct (i.e. blue = boys, pink=girls)
Radicalization - a dialectical process by which meaning is attributed to particular biological features of
human beings, as a result of which individuals may be assigned to a general category of persons which
reproduces itself biologically
Economic Determinism: All social, cultural, and political aspects of social life are the direct result of
economic factors. In Marxism, it means that class is the fundamental form of inequality.
Resistance – Individuals reject and act against social structures, can often lead to a violent opposition
Compulsory Heterosexuality – lack of freedom women have to decide their sexual orientation
(homo/hetero). Phrase refers to the pressures that confront lesbians when they are forced to act
straight (or face discrimination).
Citizen - Members of nations or societies entitled to the benefits of being a member of that society.
However many individuals are denied full rights of citizenship where some rights are granted but others
denied. Those who are treated as non-citizens are denied all benefits of citizenship and left vulnerable
Civil Citizenship – T.H Marshall’s citizenship concept of an individual’s basic human rights. These include
the right to sign a legal contract, freedom of person and speech and the right to seek redress in the
Political Citizenship - T.H Marshall’s concept of an individual’s right to political involvement. This
guarantees a political voice for citizens (i.e. voting/seeking political office).
Social Citizenship – T.H Marshall’s concept of right to full social inclusion in a society’s wealth. Citizens
should be guaranteed economic well being, education, health and inclusion in culture of their society. Social Regulation: Processes by which behaviour of individuals or groups are regulated. Control occurs
through mechanisms that ensure that people conform to the norms and rules governing conduct
Social Reproduction: State regulations reinforce intersecting inequalities along the lines of class, gender,
racialization, ethnicity, age, sexuality, and abilities.
Vertical Occupational Sex Segregation: Men’s domination in the highest paid and status occupations (in
traditional male and female occupations).
Horizontal Occupational Sex Segregation: A division of labour in paid employment where women and
men are concentrated in different occupations.
Human Capital: The abilities, skills, knowledge, and experience that an individual possesses or a group
of individuals possess. Human capital must be nurtured through training and education. The more
investment in human capital, the better the rewards (higher productivity for a society or higher personal
income for an individual).
Cultural Capital: collective dispositions, likes, dislikes, and typical recreational pursuits of the privileged
classes in a given society. These activities (reading the newspaper, going to museums, golfing and so on)
are transmitted from one generation to the next through family socialization in middle- to upper-
Symbolic Capital: Power to use symbols to reinforce social realities. It is the “power of constructing
reality” (such as race, class or gender). Symbolic power allows dominant groups to exercise symbolic
violence on minority groups through cultural and symbolic systems.
Never Overqualified: workers who held a university degree and have never worked in an occupation
that required at most a high school education -- Never Qualified: (Canadian born citizens often attained
the never qualified jobs than recent immigrants) creates an inclusion/exclusion factor.
Ever Overqualified: Workers who held a university degree and have worked at least one month in an
occupation that required at most a high school education -- Ever Overqualified: (credentials not being
recognized, social inclusion)
Education Attainment: a measure of the highest degree a person has (amount of schooling a person
has, it can refer to how many grades are completed or how many diplomas, degrees and certificates)
Education returns: the monetary and occupational labour market rewards that one receives on the basis
of their level of educational a