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Marketing Geography Matters A. Geography matters B. Trends in retail demand C. Trends in retail supply A. Geography matters Traditional retail geography focus on: store location distribution channels (moving goods and services from retailer to consumer -> transportation costs, efficiency) customer catchment areas (area from which a store attracts customers) 5-mile radius buffer vs. 5-minute drive time buffer -/408399,N0L394,..4:3997,11L.09.43O\ distance and time; GIS (geographic information system)-> extracts information in different ways from map, data potential sales (amount of money in market area; age structure) Key Geographic Concepts: distance decay (further from store = fewer customers and less interaction) intervening opportunities (other closer stores provide similar goods so may not drive so far and may spend money elsewhere) spatial hierarchy of goods (determines K4Z1,7Z070ZLOOL3J9497,;0O94 obtain these goods eg. convenience goods milk not willing to travel as far) lower order shopping goods eg clothing, toaster higher order shopping goods eg. cars, piano, wedding dress (need to look around) lower-order shopping goods convenien ce goods higher-order shopping goods New retail geography downplays questions of retail location replaces older spatial models New spatial statistical models evaluate branch performance within chains assess impact of store openings and closures segment population to pinpoint potential markets find best geographical fit for mergers (combining 2 or more companies) define optimum franchise territories maximize returns from distribution channels B. Trends in retail demand modest and uneven population growth (reduction in family formation: postponement of marriage, 1 births, increase divorce rates) population boom and bust cycles (matters for retailers specializing in age 1946 1965: baby boom population growth baby boom echo baby boom having kids; made it tricky for businesses to /09072L30545:O,9L43897:.9:70%4\8#&8-,-L08#&8 ,-L08#&8-%4\8#&8 -want a sense of what population proportion will be in a few years aging population (mobility aids and hearing aids for market) declining household size (size of house doubled but family size halved so avg person has 4 times more space to fill w/ stuff, '507.,5L9,85,.0'709,LO/02,3/ population redistribution (immigrants tend not to go to smaller cities; GTA, %47439443970,O,OJ,7\ZKLO049K075,7980[543O\82,OOL3.747/0.7L35453 small towns -> larger centers) consumer mobility (decline in population; suburbs built for people with cars, not walking ; greater mobility = wider market) creates conglomeration of shopping based on parking changes in income distribution and patterns of expenditure (rural areas: decline in spending; widening of income gap; change in geographical income ex. oil in Hailifx, Calgary; household goods, services '.O49KL3J1:0O; niche markets (goes after small segment of market -> niche) satisfies the need of ppl willing to travel a distance 9K3L.,7N09:.O:8907L3J4109K3L.L9\0J!,.L1L.,OO Community market -> tourist market ex Greek food *7003L.K0:47J,3L.144/81,L797,/0.41100 *7,\,7N09:807;L3J0O/07O\709L7L3J (assisted devices, diapers, etc.) C. Trends in retail supply consolidation and concentration of market power eg. Wal-Mart retail internationalization (5 reasons for expansion: 1. under pressure 2. absent growth 4. cultural similarities cost reduction strategies introduction of new retail formats (start in suburban into inner city areas; clustering) power centers -> power nodes Evolution of the Canadian Retail System A. From crossroads to retail strip (1850s to 1950s) B. Rise of the shopping centre (1950s to 1980s) C. Big boxes, power centres and power nodes (1980s to 2000s) D. Changes to mall structures E. Types of urban retail structures A. From crossroads to retail strip (1850s to 1950s) early 1900s population was primarily rural 50% on farms, 25% in small towns, 25% in cities rural retail centred on the General Store moved to Main Street as agricultural, industrial and resource towns grew (all independent except catalogue store + bank; stores built along streetcar lines) as cities grew, shopping focussed on downtown (CBD) neighbourhood strips grew along arterial streetcar lines and main intersections (as new immigrants came, they tend to cluster in groups so have development of local ethnic retail strip ex. Little Italy, Chinatown) (pockets of retail to serve people in that area/ neighbourhood; shopping districts) inner city retail grew along arterial roads & streetcar lines storefronts ran along sidewalks with no setback served local spatial markets supplied convenience and lower-order shopping goods local ethnic strips pedestrian strips :people walked to/from and along strip (served people who walked to store locally or went to the store on their way home from work after getting off the streetcar and walking home) store, sidewalk, roadway (pedestrianized bars, entertainment, resturants eg. in Montreal) not pedestrianized shopping precincts ex. Grafton Street, Dublin; Santiago, Chile and Pedestrian Sunday in Kensington Market%474394:;07\902547,7\ post-WWII suburban strips built along new arterial roads spatial markets (arterial roads not accessed by streetcars but by driving; houses further apart so market built on driving, not walking) ethnic markets where clusters of immigrants settled car-oriented :stores set back from sidewalk to allow for 1 or 2 rows of parking strips malls? (Most stores are still independent w/ different owners but structure looks like a mall) dominated by independent merchants and landlords B. Rise of the shopping centre (1950s to 1980s) consequent period (1950s) ex. Park Royal Shopping Centre (Vancouver, 1950); developers started to build new retail opportunities built to serve new suburbs after housing built small, open (no internal connection between stores), L-shaped or U- shaped, around parking (parking is in center of mall and have large store at end of L or U) small neighbourhood plazas and community plazas (intervening opportunity created: st 1953 1 plaza built ->Sunnybrook 1956 17 plazas 1961 53 additional shopping centers opened in Toronto anchor M:3L47/05,79203989470478:5072,7N09 formed 1st suburban ring of shopping centres simultaneous period (1960s) same developer building houses and shopping malls at same time eg Bramalea built at same time as new housing developments dominated by major property developers large enclosed regional malls and small neighbourhood plazas anchors 1 or 2 major department stores formed 2nd suburban ring of shopping centres retail chains begin to dominate malls ex. Yorkdale Shopping Centre (February 1964); 1994- controlled sales Textbook: shoppinJ.03907;L0Z0/,8.03907415O,330/.422:3L9\0J43LOO8!O,], - faster emergence of large development companies
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