9. According to your professor, what are the basic characteristics of subsistence agriculture(or “Globally-important
Ingenious Agricultural Heritage) and its 'ideal type' in terms of crops (give 2 characteristics) and farm animals (give 2
characteristics)? What are the three different types of subsistence farming?
basic characteristics of subsistence
o small farm size & continuous production
o maximum use of local resources
'Ideal type' in terms of crops(2)
o mostly cereals and tubers, but always some diversity
o stored & preserved until next harvest
ideal type' in terms of farm animals (2)
o draft animals
o bring some variety (meat, milk, egg, blood) in diet
three different types of subsistence farming?
o 1) Rudimentary sedentary tillage (RST)
o 2) Shifting agriculture
o 3) pastoral nomadism
13. Describe briefly vertical coordination (or marketing contracts) in production agriculture. What is the rationale
behind production and marketing contracts?
vertical coordination (or marketing contracts)
o Synchronization of successives stages of production & marketing, with respect to
timing of Product flows
time of delivery
o (Mostly livestock) commodity buyer
sets input specifications
(often) provide inputs (veterinary services, feed, & young animals)
What is the rationale behind production and marketing contracts?
o To increase efficiency
o To obtain (or reduce the cost of) financing
o To reduce uncertainty
o To gain market advantage
21. What is the defining characteristic of oilseeds? What is the main Canadian contribution to the
oilseed industry? Where are most Canadian sunflowers grown? What are the main obstacles that
Southern American soy producers have had to contend with? Which soybean variety is credited with
significantly extending the range of soybean production in Ontario? Why and how do soybeans need to
be processed before being fed to animals? What other alternative approach to using soybeans as
animal food is currently being examined?
the defining characteristic of oilseeds
o canola (rapeseed)
main Canadian contribution to the oilseed industry o Red Fife (Hard Spring Red Wheat)
most Canadian sunflowers grown?
o most Canadian production occurs in southern Manitoba
main obstacles that Southern American soy producers have had to contend with?
o Poor road and rail infrastructure, as well as economic instability and environmental concerns,
have been the primary checks to further expansion.
Which soybean variety isr with significantly extending the range of soybean production in Ontario?
o the Maple Arrow variety in particular is credited with expanding the range of
soybean production into eastern Ontario
Why and how do soybeans need to be processed before being fed to animals?
These processes are:
• Solvent extraction: This process, which is the one used most commonly around the world, uses hexane to
leach or wash (extract) the oil from flaked oilseeds. This method reduces the level of oil in the
extracted flakes to one percent or less.
• Continuous pressing: This process is performed at elevated temperatures, using a screw press to express
the oil from ground and properly conditioned soybeans. The pressed cake is reduced to between 4
percent and 6 percent oil content by this method.
• Hydraulic or batch pressing: This is an intermittent pressing operation carried out at elevated
temperatures in a mechanical or hydraulic press after the soybeans have been rolled into flakes and
properly conditioned by heat treatment. It is the oldest known method of processing oilseeds.
o About 85 percent of the world’s soybeans are processed, or "crushed," annually into soybean meal
o 98 percent of the soybean meal that is crushed is further processed into animal feed with the balance
used to make soy flour and proteins.
o Soy is one of the few plants that provide a complete protein as it contains all eight amino acids
essential for human health.
What other alternative approach to using soybeans as animal food is currently being examined?
o Soybean meal, the solid portion of the soybean remaining after the oil is
removed and a product of the soybean-crushing industry, is a very valuable
feed component. However, Canada is a large country with relatively little
soybean-crushing capacity and, since most of it is in southern Ontario,