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Final

2013- GGR287 FULL EXAM PREP QUESTIONS

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR287H5
Professor
p.d
Semester
Winter

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25. What were the main improvements that took place in dairy production in North America during the 19th century?
  Introduction and improvements in dairy breeds  Year round (improved) feeding and milking  Creation of pastures, increased fodder production  Better feeding systems, silos, barns  Improvement in production methods (pasteurization; Babcock test for milk fat content, TB detection tests) 26. What are 'broilers'? List three reasons why, according to proponents of the practice, it is preferable to keep them indoors rather than to let roam roam outside. What are 'layers'? According to defenders of the practice, why should they remain in cages? Why does most bee(hives) transport take place at night?
 What are 'broilers'? - “broilers” are chicken raised to become meat List three reasons why, according to proponents of the practice, it is preferable to keep them indoors rather than to let roam outside Indoor confinement: To reduce: 1. Losses of animals to predators 2. Exposure to harsh weather (And resulting diseases) 3. Exposure to diseases of wild animals What are 'layers'? - “layers” are chicken that lay eggs According to defenders of the practice, why should they remain in cages? Cages: To prevent: 1. Cannibalism 2. Fighting 3. Increase in diseases Why does most bee(hives) transport take place at night?
 (bees only fly out during the day…) so at night there in their hives so its easy to transport 27. What are the traditional ways of preventing soil salinity while irrigating? What is 'virtual water'? What does the old expression 'dying of summer complaint' refer to? How does food waste differ in advanced and less advanced economies? . What are the traditional ways of preventing soil salinity while irrigating? - lots of good-quality water is applied -drainage is rapid and efficient -soils need large infusion of fertilizer (to balance the flushing required to keep them salt-free) What is 'virtual water'?  virtual water: refers to the water used in the production of a good or service What does the old expression 'dying of summer complaint' refer to?  Summer complaint - Diarrhea, usually in infants caused by spoiled milk This was when a baby was weaned from the mother (usually at one year) and began drinking cow's milk. The cow's milk was raw milk (not pasteurized) and stored wherever it could be kept cool--like in a well, or spring house. The coolness, of course, was not enough to kill the germs. Older children would have built up immunities to the milk. So when you see little markers with the date of the child being between 1 and 2, they probably died of summer complaint. And that was severe diarrhea and dehydration. How does food waste differ in advanced and less advanced economies? In medium- & high-income countries :  mostly at consumption stage In low-income countries food  mostly during early & middle stages of food supply chain  Overall, on a per-capita basis, much more food is wasted in the industrialized world than in developing countries.  In medium- and high-income countries food is to a significant extent wasted at the consumption stage, meaning that it is discarded even if it is still suitable for human consumption. Significant losses also occur early in the food supply chains in the industrialized regions. In low-income countries food is lost mostly during the early and middle stages of the food supply chain; much less food is wasted at the consumer level.  The causes of food losses and waste in medium/high-income countries mainly relate to consumer behaviour as well as to a lack of coordination between different actors in the supply chain. Farmer-buyer sales agreements may contribute to quantities of farm crops being wasted. Food can be wasted due to quality standards, which reject food items not perfect in shape or appearance. At the consumer level, insufficient purchase planning and expiring „best-before-dates‟ also cause large amounts of waste, in combination with the careless attitude of those consumers who can afford to waste food. 28. What was historically probably the most important cattle disease? What happened to the cattle herds of Europe between 1857 and 1866? What happened in Ethiopia in 1887 and in Africa following years? List four (4) ways of dealing with rinderpest in the more distant or more recent past. Why was Walter Plowright awarded the FAO's world food prizes in 1999? In what year was rinderpest officially declared eradicated from the planet?
 What was historically probably the most important cattle disease? - Rinderpest, known as cattle plague Cattle Herds of Europe - From 1857 to 1866, Europe was almost denuded of cattle What happened in Ethiopia in 1887 and in Africa following years? List four (4) ways of dealing with rinderpest in the more distant or more recent past. Ethiopia - Ethiopia lost 95% of their cattle and most of the human population starved to death 4 Ways of Dealing With it: 1) Quarantine 2) Slaughtering 3) Burial of bodies in lime 4) Restrictions in movements Why was Walter Plowright awarded the FAO's world food prizes in 1999?  developed the tissue culture rinderpest vaccine. In what year was rinderpest officially declared eradicated from the planet?
  1920‟s vaccine breaks through  1980‟s cured 30. Give a concise definition of a pesticide and of biopesticides. What was the main goal of and the two main assumptions of the so-called Delaney amendment by the US Congress in 1958? How significant are synthetic pesticides compared to 'natural' pesticides in terms of human dietary intake? What were the main components of 'Bordeaux mixture'? What were the main crops for which it proved most significant? According to the Crop Life Foundation, how many additional US farm laborers would be required if US farmers were to remove weeds by hand while maintaining current yields? 31. What were the three main traditional ways of supplying nitrogen (N) to crops? (Give one concrete illustration or component of the system for each). According to Richard Cowen, what is guano? Why was it so valuable to agricultural producers? What kind of geographical and biological environment is conducive to its formation? What were the three main traditional ways of supplying nitrogen (N) to crops? (Give one concrete illustration or component of the system for each). 3 main traditional ways of supplying N: 1) Recycling of organic waste 2) Crop residues (mostly straw) 3) Animal and human wastes According to Richard Cowen, what is guano? Guano:  Accumulated bird dung that can only occur in areas with dense bird populations and little rain. Why was it so valuable to agricultural producers?  Very rich in nitrate and phosphate, limiting factors in the soil What kind of geographical and biological environment is conducive to its formation?  Low little rain and dense bird population. Mostly found:  On islands along the equatorial upwelling zone and in great cold currents of the world. 32. What are the raw materials used in the most modern version of the Haber-Bosch process? Which country produced the most ammonia? What is plasticulture? What are its main benefits? List two of its various benefits. What are the two main advantages of using plastics for storing grain or silage as opposed to conventional silos? What are the raw materials used in the most modern version of the Haber-Bosch process?  Hydrogen from methane, atmospheric diatomic nitrogen combined in presence of iron catalyst Which country produced the most ammonia?  China produced the most. What is plasticulture?  - The Use of Plastic in Agriculture What are its main benefits? List 2. • improving productivity • shortening growing season What are the two main advantages of using plastics for storing grain or silage as opposed to conventional silos? • much lower construction costs • no insurance costs 33. Which country is the world's largest potash exporter? According to Steven J. Van Kauwenbergh, what will happen when lower-cost phosphate rock deposits are mined out (both in terms of price and two of the various technological challenges)? Paradoxically, how could a price increase actually expand phosphate rock reserves? What are food additives? What are their main uses in terms of food production? What are the main physiological of children malnutrition in developing countries (list 2)? Which country is the world's largest potash exporter? - Canada According to Steven J. Van Kauwenbergh, what will happen when lower-cost phosphate rock deposits are mined out (both in terms of price and two of the various technological challenges)? -  The cost of phosphate rock is going to increase as the lower-cost phosphate rock deposits are mined out and producers have to move more overburden, process lower grade ores, open new mines and employ increasingly expensive technology and additional raw materials and processing media (such as water) to produce concentrates. When the prices of phosphate concentrates increase, deposits that were marginally economic may become viable. New deposits will be opened. Of particular interest are alternative mining methods such as borehole mining and developing new mines in challenging environments. Paradoxically, how could a price increase actually expand phosphate rock reserves?  When the price of phosphate concentrates increase, deposits that were marginally economic may become viable and new deposits will be opened  As prices increase, deposits which were economically marginal or projected to be unprofitable can become reserves (Le., economically marginal deposits become suitable for profitable investment) What are food additives?  Standard definition:  Ingredient used at less than perhaps 1% of a food What are their main uses in terms of food production? • flavoring and coloring ingredients (majority) • extend range and flexibility of food processes while reducing costs What are the main physiological of children malnutrition in developing countries (list 2)? ……… 34. What is (or rather what could be) the Anthropocene? What was the main environmental impact of the about 10 million humans who were alive about 8000 years ago? How much of the Earth's ice-free land are they thought to have affected? What are the main factors that explain the significant reforestation observed over the last century and a half in advanced economies?
 What is (or rather what could be) the Anthropocene?  The Anthropocene is a recent and informal geologic chronological term that serves to mark the evidence and extent of human activities that have had a significant global impact on the Earth's ecosystems • “Anthropo” = human, “-cene”: aka “epoch” in geologic time. • Atmospheric, geologic, hydrologic, biospheric and other Earth systems are now altered by humans What was the main environmental impact of the about 10 million humans who were alive about 8000 years ago?  Main environmental impact: growth of farming - humans developed agriculture and animal husbandry to supplement or replace hunter-gatherer subsistence How much of the Earth's ice-free land are they thought to have affected?  three-quarters of Earth‟s ice-free land affected What are the main factors that explain the significant reforestation observed over the last century and a half in advanced economies?
 …….. 35. According to Aradhana Singh, what are the two (2) main approaches to crop diversification in agriculture? According to Thomas DeGregori, why was the fact that 'early agricultural staples originated as monodominant strands in harsh or marginal conditions' significant? Why does he argue that crop protection must have emerged with agriculture?
 According to Aradhana Singh, what are the two (2) main approaches to crop diversification in agriculture? A. Horizontal diversification,  the primary approach to crop diversif
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