final exam.docx

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Pierre Desrochers

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22. Give a broad and more restrictive definition of pulse crops. Which Canadian province is at the heart of pulse production? What are its main advantages for quality pulse production? Give a broad definition of root crops. In terms of physical geography, in which environment did potato production historically thrived and where has it been expanding rapidly in the more recent past? What nickname did Russian peasants first give to the potato? According to Adam Smith, what was the single greatest disadvantage of the potato? Who ordered his peasants to grow potatoes as an insurance against cereal crop failure? How did increase potato production historically improved indirectly protein intake in Western Europe? 1. Broad definition  Annual leguminous crop yielding from one (1) to twelve (12) seeds of variable size, shape, and color within a pod (peas, beans, lentils, chickpeas, fava beans) 2. Saskatchewan 3. The climate of Saskatchewan offers many opportunities for quality pulse production. Cold winters and dry summers limit disease and insect problems and help to keep production costs down. 4. Root crops  plant roots used as vegetables  carrot  beet radish & horseradish   tuber 5. "Devil’s apples" or "forbidden fruit of Eden," 6. Potatoes were adopted widely because they grew well in most climates, altitudes, and soils and were more highly productive than grains in both good years and bad.( better adapted to European temperate, longer-summer-day growing conditions and could be harvested earlier)  Asia 7. disadvantage stocks could not be stored or carried over from year to year because the tubers rotted 8. Prussia's Frederick 9. Potatoes are also easy to store and were popular as fodder for livestock through the winter. Therefore, cultivating potatoes also indirectly improved protein intake. 23. Give a concise definition of 'vegetable.' Technically, what is it that makes a tomato a fruit? Which country now produces nearly half of the world's vegetable supply? What are the main hindrances to the expansion of horticultural productions in less advanced economies? What explains the rise of consumer demand for horticultural products in advanced economies in the recent past? What are the main barriers to getting the horticultural production of small-scale farmers on supermarket shelves? Give concise definitions of pollination, self-pollination and cross-pollination. Why have crabapples become increasingly popular with apple producers? List two of the three most important cucurbits. 1. Definitions  Vegetable:  Edible plant or part of a plant  Typically leaf, stem or root of a plant 2. Technically, out of flour and have seeds 3. China 4. Due to the limited attention that public research institutions have given to horticultural crops, yield increases in cereals have outstripped yield increases in horticultural crops. 5. 1. desire for year-round availability 2.increased diversity of foods, well as a growing awareness of the relationship between diet and health, all contribute to the increased consumption of these commodities 6. Quality and reliability demands of supermar- kets often act as barriers to participation in the trade chain by small-scale exporters and producers. 7. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the male part of the flower to the female part of the flower must occur at blossom time Self-pollinating are the types of fruit trees may be pollinated with their own pollen Cross- pollination is the transfer of pollen from one variety to a different variety of the same type of tree 8. Flowering crabapples are becoming a popular pollination method with commercial growers. Bloom times are generally longer than other apple species and crabapples are easily cared for. 9. cucumber, melon, and watermelon 24. What is mainly extracted from oilseeds? What is the main Canadian contribution to the oilseed industry? Where are most Canadian sunflowers grown? What are the main obstacles Southern American soy producers have had to contend with? Which soybean variety is credited with significantly extending the range of soybean production in Ontario? Why and how do soybeans need to be processed before being fed to animals? What other alternative approach to using soybeans as animal food is currently being examined? 1. oil Nearly all soybeans process for oil  Cooking & other edible uses  Biodiesel or industrial uses 2. Canada (repressed) Crushed Canada #1 (50% exported) 3. southern Manitoba 4. Poor road and rail infrastructure, as well as economic instability and environmental concerns, have been the primary checks to further expansion. 5. Maple Arrow: The soybean developed by Agriculture Canada that expanded soybean range out of southern Ontario. 6. In their raw state, however, they contain enzymes (known as tripsin inhibitors) that limit the body's ability to use the bean's protein. Before the beans can be fed to animals, the enzymes need to be destroyed through roasting or processing. 7. Soybean meal 25. List two (2) historical advantages of sugar. List two (2) long-standing or more recent goals of sugarcane breeders. How did sugar cane breeders facilitate the mechanization of harvesting sugarcane? Why must sugarcane stems be processed quickly? Why has the last stage of sugar refining historically taken place close to final markets as opposed to production area (list two factors)? Why is this still typically the case today (list two factors)? 1. increased personal income, the use of processed foods used in cooking, in the preparation of commercially processed foods, and as an additive to drinks 2. resistance to disease, insects, and animal pests; suitability to different edaphic and climatic conditions 3. the industry has come to prefer flat land where the machines can function most effectively. made easier by the breeding of varieties that achieve uniform height and stand erect. The machines can cut and top (remove the inflorescence) with little waste. 4. Once the stem cut, milled quickly to avoid loss of juice and, hence, of sucrose and revenues 5. Why final processing (refineries) near market?  Yesterday: Transport in leaky sailing ships~  Risk of contamination from sea water  Crystals coalesced in voyage across tropical seas  Lack of fuel in cane- growing regions  Today Refineries not limited by harvest; can operate year-round by buying supplies from producer worldwide according to season and price  Can also refine (domestic) beet sugar  Close to & know markets 26. What is entomophagy? According to the FAO, for how many people is it a regular component of the traditional diet? List three (3) especially relevant issues in the twenty-first century that, according to the FAO, make it desirable. List two (2) anthropogenic factors that explain why it is threatened in some regions. According to the Pew Commission, what were the three main steps taken to streamline the process of raising animals for food? 1. The consumption of insects, 2. at least 2 billion people 3. rising cost of animal protein, food and feed insecurity, environmental pressures, population growth and increasing demand for protein among the middle classes. 4. cultural and religious practices overharvesting, pollution, wildfire and habitat degradation, have contributed to a decline in many edible insect populations 5. standardized feed for rapid weight gain and uniformity genetic selection to accentuate traits mechanization of feeding, watering, and other husbandry activities 27. According to the Breeds of Livestock Committee of Oklahoma State University, why is it misleading to pretend that animals only produce one pound or less of human food for each three pounds of plant eaten? According to Dennis Avery, when did wool fabric appear and how do we know when sheep became wool producers? List two (2) factors each for the general pros and cons of eating meat versus plant food. List 3 advantages of domesticating (as opposed to hunting) animals. 1. this inefficiency only applies to those plants and plant products that the human can utilize. The fact is that over two-thirds of the feed fed to animals consists of substances that are either undesirable or completely unsuited for human food. 2. Wool fabrics seems to have appeared about 3350 BC sheep suddenly outnumbered both of the goats and cattle. More than half of these sheep lived to maturity and must have had wool-producing careers. 3. Meat VS Plant?  Pros Less toxic   Concentrated source of nutrients (lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals), calories, high- quality protein of fat  Most digestible plants deficient in essential amino acids and vitamins(such as vitamin B12)  Most plants more tedious to prepare  Cons  Animals can run or fight back  Spoils more quickly  Contains dangerous parasites 4. Domesticating VS Hunting Animals Edible garburators (organic wastes & surplus food crops) Insurance against crop failure (reliability) Convenience Milk Transportation Manure Traction power / torque 28. What were the three main different environments in which pigs used to be raised? What is pannage? List two (2) historical advantages and two (2) historical disadvantages in keeping pigs as opposed to ruminants. According to the UN FAO, what is the biggest single factor affecting farm animal diversity? Why? 1. Raising pigs (hogs)  Forest  Farm  cities 2. Pannage is rising pigs in forest 3. Pigs VS Ruminants  Pros  Prolific (4 month gestation, period, average litter to piglets for 2 female calves)  Semi- wild foraging pigs could fend off predators (even wolves)  Rapid growth (high conversion ratio)  Omnivorous (organic waste of all kinds; surplus crops from sweet potatoes to barley; whey)  (Later) speed of reproduction facilitates breeding  Cons  Low ability to do well on cellulose alone (monogastric)  No primary nonmeat uses  No dairy products, source of power (traction) or transportation Manure difficult to collect, less valuable (than sheep & horse)   Before motorized transportation, didn’t travel as well (shorter legs, lost more weight, more troublesome) 4. globalization of livestock markets Most of the world's rapidly growing demand for livestock products is being met by intensive production systems based on a few species and breeds of high-input, high-output animals. 29. What are 'broilers'? List three (3) reasons why, according to proponents of the practice, it is preferable to keep them indoor rather than to let roam outside. What are 'layers'? According to defenders of the practice, why should they remain in cages? Why does most bee(hives) transport take place at night? 1. Broilers are chickens bred and raised specifically for meat production 2. 1 the group size when raised indoors is larger than the group size when raised outdoors 2 animals are separated 3 confined to spaces that provide for only minimal movement 3. Layers are mature chickens laying eggs. 4. Easy feeding, chickens are timid and in cage they can have stable emotion, easy collecting eggs, clean 5. Most beehive transport takes place at night (bee only fly out during the day) 30. In the world of fisheries, what do ITQs stand for? How do they work? Assuming that they can be enforced, what is their ultimate goal? What was historically the main species of fish used in aquaculture (or pisciculture) from China to Germany? What percentage of fish consumed globally can now be traced back to aquaculture? Paradoxically, how does the raising of those fishes place a strain on wild stocks? 1. Individual Transferable Quotas 2. Like transferable emissions permits, ITQ’s impose a maximum limit on the quantity of fish that can be taken. 3. Assuming the quota limits can be enforced, the total catch from the fishery will not exceed a certain predetermined level. those who can fish most effectively will be able to outbid others to acquire the ITQ’s 4. Carp 5. 50% 6. while the industry is more efficient than ever, it is also putting a significant strain on marine resources by consuming large amounts of feed made from wild fish harvested from the sea 31. What was the largest component of operating expenses for Canadian farmers in 2009? What are the traditional ways of preventing soil salinity while irrigating? How do Molden et al. define 'virtual water'? What is their take on food self- sufficiency policy for water-short countries? What does the old expression 'dying of summer complaint' refer to? How does food waste differ in advanced and less advanced economies? 1. commercial feed constituting the largest component 2. How to prevent soil salinity while irrigating 1) lot of good quality water is applied 2) drainage is rapid and efficient 3) soils need large infusion of fertilizer (to balance the flushing required to keep them salt free) “sensible civilizations should not………..” 3. the equivalent water it takes to grow food—could solve problems of water scarcity. 4. A strategic increase in international food trade, and thus trade in virtual water, could mitigate water scarcity and reduce environmental degradation. Instead of striving for food self-sufficiency, water-short countries would import food from water-abundant countries 5. spoiled food during warm weather 6. Causes of food waster  In medium & high income countries:  Mostly at consumption stage  In low income countries food  Mostly during early &middle stages of food supply chain 32. What was historically probably the most important cattle disease? What happened to the cattle herds of Europe between 1857 and 1866? What happened in Ethiopia in 1887 and in Africa following years? List two (2) of the main measures used historically to control rinderpest in animals. Why was Walter Plowright awarded the FAO? s world food prizes in 1999? In what year was rinderpest officially declared eradicated from the planet? 1. cattle plague 2. Europe was almost denuded of cattle and Britain did not escape 3. Ethiopia lost 95% of their cattle and most of the human population starved to death. March the disease entered the South African Republic and moved on remorselessly into Cape Colony and German Southwest Africa in 1897. All attempts to stop the plague failed. 4. Bovilla peste powdered vaccine 5. Walter Plowright awarded the FOA because he developed vaccine for rinderpest. 6. 2011 33. List four (4) advantages that seed producers brought over the old practice of keeping some of one's seeds for the next growing season. List three (3) traditional ways of fighting agricultural pests other than pesticides. Give a concise definition of a pesticide and of biopesticides. What were the two basic assumptions about 'carcinogens' that were the basis for the 1958 Delaney amendments? In terms of human dietary intake, what is the proportion of the natural pesticides compared to synthetic pesticides that are rodent carcinogens? What was the first substance used to fight powdery and downy mildew in wine growing areas? According to the CropLife Foundation, what would happen to the labour requirements of US agriculture if there was a movement away from herbicides towards using labour to pull weeds? 1. Seed producers advantages 1. new & improved varieties (selection, hybridization, etc) 2. storage (protection & availability on demand) 3. treatment (chemical protection against fungus & bacteria) 4. production in better regions (outsourcing & quality) 5. marketing Fighting pests  encouraging pests natural enemies (insects, mites, spiders)  rotating crops  crop diversity patterns  utilizing natural forage & trees  developing more resistant crop varieties 2. A pesticide is any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any pest. Biopesticides are certain types of pesticides derived from such natural materials as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. 3. (a) were rarely found in foods and (b) were put there by humans, either purposely, through food additives, or inadvertently, in the form of pesticide resi-dues. 4. nature's pesticides is about 10,000 times higher than human intake of synthetic pesticides that are rodent carcinogens 5. sulfur 6. if farmers were to return to using labor instead of crop protection products to pull weeds, U.S. agriculture would need approximately 72 million (approximately 23 percent of total U.S. population) additional farm laborers 8 to maintain current yields. 34. What were the three main traditional ways of supplying nitrogen (N) to crops? (Give one concrete illustration or component of the system for each). According to Richard Cowen, what is guano? Why was it so valuable to agricultural producers? What kind of geographical and biological environment is conducive to its formation? What are the raw materials used in the most modern version of the Haber-Bosch process? Which country produced the most ammonia? In one sentence, what is plasticulture? List two of its various benefits. What are the two main advantages of using plastics for storing grain or silage as opposed to conventional silos? 1. 3 traditional ways ~ N to crops 1) recycling of organic waste  crops residues (mostly straw)  animal & human wastes  others (seaweeds, kitchen ash) 2) rotating including N fixing leguminous grains  bean  peas  lentils  soybeans 3) leguminous cover crops ploughed under (green manures)  2 clover genera  vetches <<< extent  field peas  chickpeas  lupines 2. Guano is accumulated bird dung. 3. As it accumulates and dries, it becomes a dense organic material that is very rich in nitrate and phosphate, use as organic fertilizer for agricultural
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