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Exam Prep!!!! GRR111 .docx

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Harvey Shear

Exam: What is a Fordist Economy?  Direct investment –putting all there money to one product (risky- putting all your eggs in one basket, which may lead to bank r.)  It an assembly line, standardize production and came about because of tec, and increase efficiency in output
 What is a Post-Fordist Economy?
  Indirect investment because you have partnerships that allow to divide up labor and production which is much cheaper and efficient, less risker. Ex. ( china tire malfunction fails- dose not affect the entire car production)  Out sourcing of production and labor  Cheaper labor  Cost reduction  Franchising- you get sales without owning the location (using of labeling and products) – tim Horton’s Other: To the best of my knowledge: Fordist is the era of mass production, Henry Ford Model T all that stuff. Direct investment and industrialization of cities, factories are placed in cities and the economy is generated there. Standardized production so Hoyt models and the circular model. Basically things are produced faster for less. Post-fordist is modern economies based around globalization, indirect investment to foreign countries, TNC (trans national companies) outsourcing to foreign countries and the deindustrilization of cities - more teritary employment than primary/secondary production and the models for the 21st century cities. So less national investment more international investment. This ties into the economic geography through the transition into the modern economies from those of the early 20th century to that of the late 20th century/ early 21st, the transition of city landscapes to deal with this and the national investment. I hope this helps (apologies about the spelling), the textbook has a good section on this stuff; any questions feel free to ask. Post Fordist Geography  Difference between fordist /post fordist economies o Flexibility  Especially in production  Increasingly in corporate structure  Concentration of capital
  Orientation of trade o Developed, incorporation of developing countries : most nike products are consumed in developed worlds and produced in developing world  Organization of economies o Developing world – manufacturing & technology –large pop, large labour supply o Developed world – Management & service- focusing on commincation skills and magament processes Why the difference in Strategies?  Horizontal integration – same sector, increased market
 share & bargaining power, integrating into same economy ex. Loblaws buys out metro to increase market share and controls much larger sector of economy, lager the market share greater power to bargen (Kellogg’s example)  * exapands outwards side to side same type of things  Vertical integration–different sector, control over
 supplies marketing o Economies of Scale *moves up wards so there are different things being incorporated with in the sector What are the Geographical aspects of both?
  out sourcing and how each country how different labor costs  ex. Canada 10 an hour where as china 1 dollar an hour  when you out source your products there are not strict environmental factors Understand the complexity of the Service Economy? *tertiary and up – Canadan is service economy Geo Of the service Economy  Urban based
  Variations in skill levels and income o Implications for developed economies Divisions o Tertiary (retail, personal services)- its dose not tell us where people are working
 o Quaternary (research, information, management) o Quinary (Executive)  Flexibility in location – technology  Hard Skills (comp sci) out sourced to developing economy, Soft Skills 
 - majority of ppl will be employed here, dealing with people  Institutional ‘thickness’- building off one another o Personal contacts- network are important Is there a geography to the service economy?  Hard skills – manufacturing countries such as china and other countries  Soft skills- social skills trying sell the product with in the country- every country has soft skills What are the key components of globalization? 2 basic components:  Freedom of trade
 -new thing, being able to trade with different countries (NAFTA) comes together as a group and start trading amongst.  Freedom of investment – out sourcing of jobs indirect and direct investment What is the motive for globalization?  Reduce trade barriers o Countries should open their markets – dismantle trade/investment barriers “race to the bottom” – in order for cooperation to be profitable they need cheaper labor and they have to keep searching for cheaper labor and if you cannot keep the cost of labor down investment will go elsewhere. ( whose going to do the job for the cheapest?) “cut and run”
 - this is about exploitation of labor “living wages”- 30 to 40 thousand dollars a year in Canada but in third world countries will be lower Consider the types of jobs, the employees and the
 conditions?  Women do the assembly line and men are seen to be higher job  Women constitute:
 o >80% of workforce  Men – managers, supervisors, security  Women - assembly line work
  Women workers o Young (13-25) 
 o Single
 o Little formal education Gender division of male and female Why women  Cheap, Flexible, Replaceable  Gendered Stereotypes o Greater dexterity, tolerant of tedious work, docile  Working conditions
 o 10 hours per day, 7 day week o Obligatory overtime
 o No protection ( no unionization) & No benefits ( health and vacation)  Why tolerate these conditions?  Need money!!! Consider the pricing of products?  $22.50 Factory
 o $14.60 materials
 o $3.37 labour
 o $3.41 overhead
 o $1.12 (factory profit)  Sell to retailer $45.00
 o Shipping
 o Research & development
 o Marketing, Sales, Administration o Profit  Sell to customer for $100.00+ (depends of how we consume and sell) o Expenses
 o Profits  Can globalization reduce the gap between rich and
 poor countries?  It creates a dependency on countries  The poor are become poorer and the rich are becoming richer  All countries are dependent on one another What are the effects of Globalization of Culture?  Culture: gives us a sense of belonging and identity, controls o Way of life, Values, Experiences o What are the elements/expressions of culture  Language, Music, Food, Dress, Religion  Effects: erasing local culture and authencity of a place,  Diffusion- occurs b/c of movement  Domination-b/c of modernization there is donation taking place of other cultures  Economics- reason why we have culture change is b.c we want to increase level of economics Globalization Effects  Erasing local identities – we are becoming the same b.c were are eating, wearing and doing the same o Traditions, way of life  Erasing uniqueness of local places- erasing the differences and putting in the same (homogenization) place and geo becomes irrelevant b/c where ever you are is the same *global culture emerging based on material consumption with the English language as its medium  A local agent has to be the one who opens it and they shit the culture to attract there consumers – it is successful  Ex. MacDonald’s- has to alter there menu to reach out to consumers to make money  Even though its western culture, its shifted all around the world  Impact: is health, changing ones cultures, way of life  Ex. Japan has fatter kids compared to past generation McDonald’s and Local Cultures Setting image in order to increase consumption  Chicken Chutni  McAloo TikkiBurger  McVeggie Burger  Wrap Paneer Salsa  McCurry Veg  Chicken Maharaja Mac  Red bean sundae  Halal meat  Segregated eating areas Impacts of Globalization  Identity
  Local – Place 
 - our local neighborhood, it ties us to a particular place o Global – Placenessless- but now where ever you are going you will find Mc’s or other things you start to hear rihaanna playing so you lose you and where you are  Change/Destruction  Diet/food
 -kids don’t eat local food they eat Mc’s even when they have an option to eat other  Language 
  Music- Beliefs Points Of Conclusion  Globalization = Americanization/Westernization? –heavy emphasis on American globalization  Is Globalization forced? – yes it is forced b/c spreading of capitalism but its not forced to gun point, its not about domination through colonization  Who are the agents of globalization?  Why is it globalization of culture successful
 -b.c it incorporates local agents –ex. Vegie mac instead of Big mac o Image, associations Chicago School Of Human Ecology o 1920s - identification of social areas within cities o particular‘ social groups ’tied to particular spaces Key Elements of The Model  1.Everything is based on central area  2. It’s the transpo
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