2012 Final Exam Answers

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Pierre Desrochers

14 Draw Jared Diamonds schematic overview of the chains of causation leading up to proximate historical factors from ultimate historical factors or in other words the factors underlying the broadest patterns of history19 In Diamonds opinion why is an eastwest continental axis preferable to a northsouth continental axis Axis orientation affected rate and spread of crops livestock writing wheels other inventions East to west is much preferable same latitude gave same day length same seasonal variations to a lesser degree there were similar diseases temperature and rainfall habitat or biomestypes of vegetation 20 Why does H F Dobyns argue that the first Europeans who moved inland into the Americas encountered recently depopulated landscapes Why are some scholars critical of the high numbers of then recently diseased people put forward by Dobyns Dobyns key argument was that diseases swept from coastline to inland areas thus the first Europeans would often have encountered depopulated areas Some scholars are critical of the high numbers because1 Smallpox spreads slowlynot very far victim cannot move 2 Different strains of smallpox In Americas perhaps not deadliestmost contagious3 Early accounts not by first hand witnesses link smallpox to 10 plagues of Egypt punishment for sins 4 Local American DiseasesCocolitzli plagues descriptionsspread do not fit any recognizable epidemiological paradigms21 What are the diverse ways by which microbes spread from one person to another and from animals to people Why should a germ evolve the apparently selfdefeating strategy of killing its host 1 Wait for their hosts to be eaten by other hosts eg Salmonella bacteria in meat2 Hitchiking insects to humans In saliva of insect that bites the host and flies off to find a new host Examples Malaria plague Typhus Sleeping sickness From mother to fetussyphilis rubella Aids 3 Modify habits of hosts to faciliatate transmission Genital sores Syphilis Skin Lesionssmallpoxthrough blankets Cough sneezing influenza and common cold DiarrheaCholera Biting FrenzyRabies 4 Attack the host directly Hookworms and schistosomesWhy should a germ evolve the apparently selfdefeating strategy of killing its host Unintended byproduct of host symptoms promoting efficient transmission of microbes Providing that each victim infects on average 1 new victim still winning evolutionary strategy22 How do humans physiologically cope with germs Fever attempt to bake germs to death Immune System White blood cells and other cells
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