FINAL Exam Review

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR345H5
Professor
Gabrielle Sauter
Semester
Fall

Description
EXAM REVIEW Power: it is possible to identify three aspects of power, two of which are more clearly held by particular individuals or institutions. 1. the ability to command or control the actions of others: examples of this power over others would include the control a male household head exercise over other family members within a patriarchal society, or the authority of a national govt. over its citizens. 2. second is the ability to control and deploy resources 3. power within the operation of everyday techniques, strategies and practices (like police conducting surveillance thus dictating ur actions. Like laws dictating ur actions) -SUMMARY of POWER: The Capability to act (power to), to control others (power over)or something that operates within everyday techniques, strategies, and practices -Representation: The ways in which language, symbols, signs and images stand for objects, people, events, processes or things -Discourse: A form of representation through writing, visual images, or other means -Terminology: ‘Developing Country’, ‘Third World’, ‘Global South’ - Many of these words are troublesome because of representations that stick with them and the ideas that come along with these words. Such as Developing country. It assumes that the country requires development and requires OUR (the “Global” North’s help) -TED Talk: ‘The Danger of a Single Story’ -The Reason it matters and is bad to have a single story (representation) is because it creates a stereotype. This Stereotype may not be entirely wrong but it is certainly incomplete. It doesn’t take the perspective of the other side that may completely change the view and representation just by simply adding more information. -Narratives: How the South is represented by the North and by the South -From the North: 1. Orientalism: a term which encompasses the ways in which the “west” views the “east”. In particular the countries and peoples of the Middle East. -“Othering” and “Eurocentric:: western experience is at the center. And everything else outside of that is considered exotic or different 2. Noble Savage: It was the documentation of indigenous people. Often documented them as close to nature, simple, naïve, and honest. This documentation was seen as a justification for Europeans to ‘civilize’ these societies 3. Pathos and Development: Best explained by an example. Advertisements used to (Nowadays there have been improvements in this type of representations) show the global south as sad and poor and moreover in need of help and development. This representation justifies the North in aiding the south. But in creating these sorts of representations there are some dangers involved with that including removing the agency of the people. It assumes they need us and ignores their abilities (agency) to work and improve their own lives. Nowadays advertising (and such) show a shift towards show that they are not in NEED of help but can help themselves and the goal is to help them help themselves. 4. Threat: The Global North see’s three threats from the south. 1.Overpopulation and the depletion of resources. Ecological threats. Mass immigration. Remittances 2. Diseases. Get blamed for swine flu, malaria, HIV/aids 3. Conflict -From the South: 1. Tradition and Moral: The South often see the North as immoral 2. Alternatives: Offering Alternative development programs like between Cuba and Venezuela (including working together across the region as Chavez did in Venezuela by exporting oil cheaply to Cuba for health promotion and doctors from Cuba) 3. Modernity: Modern and technologically advanced. Its modernity is seen as a way to attract foreign investment - Malthus, Paul Ehrlich (neo-malthusian), Meadows who wrote “the Limits of growth” -Malthus world has carrying capacity for the resources and if the pop continues to grow then will pass the carrying capacity. So population limiting methods -Neo-malthusian: said that the race to feel all of humanity is over and that international aid would ultimately only contribute to larger famines -a focus on population growth and particularly the fertility of the poor detracts attention from the inequality of resource usage between countries and indviduals. Arguably, it is the unsustainable lifestyles of most people in the North and of the growing middle classes in the South that are so far problematic. -Limits of growth: predicted that population growth would ultimately lead to overshoot and collapse: rapid declines in standards of living and life expectancy were inevitable for all -Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Investment by govt. or private companies into foreign countries -Export Processing Zones (video clip on Maquiladoras from Maquilopolis Lecture 2 Slide 18) - factory workers in Mexico and how women are seen as objects. Low wages, poor conditions result in health risks like her nose bleeds. Insecure job positions. Environmental health, health conditions, dehumanization of work -Export Processing Zones: adverse effect on the national economy and the labor in that country, when its not supposed to. Ind. of national laws of taxation and even regulation thus low wages and bad contions and takes away the opportunity to event ax them a little. Provide jobs but any sort of uprising or disagreement about pay or anything and they can easily be moved to another country or in the case in Jamaica bring workers in who are willing to work for the wages -Tourism: Given limited opportunities for industrial development and wanting to diversify from reliance on primary production, many countries in the Global South have focused on international tourism as potential source of foreign exchange earnings and job creation. Political instability, terrorism and natural disasters can all affect tourist flows Foreign Aid: Countries investing in other countries. Or Institutions and donors contributing to investing/donating to countries. Often have strings attached like SAPs. Good Governance: since 1980s, neoliberal ideology created this idea that ‘good governance’ was the retraction of state intervention and thus following good governance would make the country eligible for aid and more FDI Adjustment Programmes/Policies and neoliberalism -Structural Adjustment Programs/Policies: Policies imposed by international donor organizations on indebted countries aimed at scaling back public expenditure and achieving balanced payments. These involved a liberalization of the economy with reduced government intervention, opening up the economy to foreign investment, and reduced government spending. Such policies resulted in economic stabilization in the short term, but the longer-term implications for economic growth, social inequality, and poverty are more mixed. THIS IS A NEOLIBERAL APPROACH -summary: deregulation, liberalizing trade and economies, reducing state expenditure and privatizing public serves, balancing of debt repayment -Neoliberal: approaches to economic and political dev. that stress the role of the market rather than the state Formally known as the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), the Brundtland Commission's mission is to unite countries to pursue sustainable development together. The Chairman of the Commission, Gro Harlem Brundtland, was appointed by Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, former Secretary General of the United Nations, in December 1983. At the time, the UN General Assembly realized that there was a heavy deterioration of the human environment and natural resources. To rally countries to work and pursue sustainable development together, the UN decided to establish theBrundtland Commission. Gro Harlem Brundtland was the former Prime Minister of Norway and was chosen due to her strong background in the sciences and public health. The Brundtland Commission officially dissolved in December 1987 after releasing the Brundtland Report, also known as Our Common Future], in October 1987. Brundtland Report: After the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment and the 1980 World Conservation Strategy of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, the leaders of our world realized that we needed to create an organization whose sole purpose was to raise awareness of the need for sustainable development. During this time period, people in developed countries were starting to become more aware about environmental issues stemming from industrialization and growth. Developed countries wanted to reduce the environmental impact of their growth. On the other hand, developing countries were becoming discouraged because they were not at and could not reach the higher levels of economic growth that industrialized countries had. Because of this need for growth, developing countries were desperate to use cheap methods with high environmental impact and unethical labour practices in their push to industrialize. The United Nations saw a growing need for an organization to address these environmental challenges which were intertwined with economic and social conditions as well. The Brundtland Commission Report recognised that human resource development in the form of poverty reduction, gender equity, and wealth redistribution was crucial to formulating strategies for environmental conservation, and it also recognised that environmental-limits to economic growth in industrialised and industrialising societies existed. As such, the Report offered “*the+ analysis, the broad remedies, and the recommendations for a sustainable course of development” within such societies (1987: 16). However, the Report was unable to identify the mode(s) of production that are responsible for degradation of the environment, and in the absence of analysing the principles governing market-led economic growth, the Report postulated that such growth could be reformed (and expanded); this lack of analysis resulted in an obfuscated-introduction of the term sustainable development. [8] The report deals with sustainable development and the change of politics needed for achieving it. The definition of this term in the report is quite well known and often cited: "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". It contains two key concepts:  the concept of "needs", in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and  the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs." The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC) that set binding obligations on the industrialised countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases. The UNFCCC is an international environmenta ltreaty with the goal of achieving the "stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." The Protocol was initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, and entered into force on 16 February 2005. As of September 2011,191 states have signed and ratified the protocol. The only remaining signatory not to have ratified the protocol is the United States. Other United Nations member states which did not ratify the protocol are Afghanistan, Andorra and South Sudan. In December 2011, Canada withdrew from the Protocol. Under the Kyoto Protocol, 37 industrialized countries and the European Community (the [7] European Union-15, made up of 15 states at the time of the Kyoto negotiations) ("Annex I Parties") commit themselves to limit or reduce their emissions of four greenhouse gases. All members give general commitments. Climate Debt: Developed countries have an ecological debt owed to developing countries, future generations and the earth itself. It been submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by over fifty countries including Bolivia, Bhutan, Malaysia, Micronesia, Sri Lanka, Paraguay, Venezuela and the Group of Least Developed countries, representing 49 of the world's poorest and most vulnerable countries. The climate-debt concept incorporates two distinct elements: Adaptation debt Which represents the compensation owed to the poor for the damages of climate change they have not caused. The extent of adaptation debt is difficult to calculate; but has three main components:  Avoiding harm – i.e. the costs of avoiding climate harms and impacts can be estimated from necessary changes to national planning, projects and programs  Direct harm – i.e. the direct costs of actual (unavoidable) harms, which should be compensated at full costs  Forgone opportunities – i.e. the costs of lost and diminished opportunities in developing countries, caused by having to forego development pathways followed by the North The climate-debt theory posits that wealthy countries and companies are accountable for the impacts of their historical and continued over-consumption of the Earth’s limited resources. Emissions debt which is compensation owed for their fair share of the atmospheric space they cannot use if climate change is to be stopped. The climate-debt theory argues that to stop climate change humans must accept that there is a 'carbon budget' which represents the total amount of carbon the Earth's natural systems can absorb without climate change occurring. Given this the climate negotiations are, in substantial part, about how to share this budget. The negotiations are about how to share the Earth’s atmospheric space between rich and poor countries, and how to share the means – the financing and technology – required to live in this space. The climate-debt theory argues that the negotiations are about the allocation of a carbon budget of 1660 GtCO2-eq in total between 1850 and today. To do this fairly:  Developed countries would be allocated 390 GtCO2 based on their population ratio (around 20% of world population).  Developing countries would be allocated 1270 GtCO2 (around 80% of world population). On this scenario, given the reality of industrial development and historical emissions developed countries will, if they cut emissions by 49% by 2017, use 640GtCO2 more than their allocation. [1] It is this over-consumption that is characterised as 'emissions debt' and which advocates argue must be paid for. Climate Justice: It is generally used as a term for viewing climate change as an ethical issue and considering how its causes and effects relate to concepts of justice, particularly social justice and environmental justice. This can mean examining issues such as equality, human rights, collective rights and historical responsibility in relation to climate change. Recognizing and addressing the fact that those least responsible for climate change experience its greatest [1][2] impacts is seen by many as being central to climate justice. The term is also used with reference to legal systems, where justice is achieved through application and development of law in the area of climate change. –Ethical dimensions of climate change debate, namely who is likely to be most affected, when and why is not addressed adequately within contemporary frameworks –Vulnerability of marginalized people to impacts of climate change Environmental Justice: Environmental Justice is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies. EPA has this goal for all communities and persons across this Nation. It will be achieved when everyone enjoys the same degree of protection from environmental and health hazards and equal access to the decision-making process to have a healthy environment in which to live, learn, and work. The term environmental justice emerged as a concept in the United States in the early 1980s. It has two aspects to it, the first is a social movement and the second is an Environmental Protection Agency. –How does Climate Justice relate to Environmental Justice? Climate justice is a fluid concept; however, there are recurring themes across definitions. Climate Justice is a vision to dissolve and alleviate the unequal burdens created by climate change. As a form of environmental justice, climate justice is the fair treatment of all people and freedom from discrimination with the creation of policies and projects that address climate change and the systems that create climate change and perpetuate discrimination Peek Reading Lecture 6 Summary: Doublespeak in Durban: Mondi, Waste Management, Struggles of the South Durban Community Environmental Alliance  South Durban located in South Africa  Local communities in South Durban are attempting to live out democratic rights by undertaking environmental justice action to improve their neighbourhoods physically and socially  Based on case study on South Durban Community Environmental Alliance(SDCEA) which is combined of 10 community based organization and 2 NGO’s who are against the Mondi Paper (Pty) Ltd. The south African Waste Site Struggle  Waste management has been poorly monitored and have records of ineptitude, and environmental injustice contamination  Contamination exist at more than ½ the landfill sites, only 20% are safe  1994-1996 toxic site was publically known due to a civil society campaign  1995 Environmental Justice Networking forum (EJNF) held national meeting to plan a joint strategy at a national level in the campaign against landfill sites  “Speak out poverty campaign” problems that were recognized were: poor provision of services; land degradation in rural areas; harmful effects of acute exposure to poisonous chemicals; pollutants from dirty industries and mining operations; exposure to hazardous waste sites, incinerators informal dumping sites; poor forestry practices  Enviroserv which is South Africa’s largest hazardous waste disposal company was granted permission by government to operate one of the two most hazardous commercial landfill sites in the country South Durban- an Unfortunate History  Until 1940’s South Durban was thriving gardening market are until it got converted to an industrial state providing workforce  People got removed from land that was rezoned for industrial purposes leading to industrial development next to residential areas  Due to this has the highest SO2pollution in country Mondi Paper- The struggle  Mondi Paper is a multinational corporation producing coal ash as waste and dumping in sites adjacent to residential community  Conflict was b/w Mondi Paper company and the local communities  Land which Mondi was built on was a community recreational land  1997 Mondi attempted to expand dump site towards residential areas without permit  The local provincial office delayed the process of dealing with the dumping of hazardous ash  Community questioned whether the provincial office “would have shown this high degree of tolerance if waste site had been established in the upper middle class and white areas?” Green Agenda – More prominent focus of environmental concerns in the North focused on reducing the impacts of production, consumption and waste from urbanization aimed at reducing the pressure on natural resource systems and restoring balance to the world’s eco- systems. Brown Agenda – More prominent focus of environmental concerns in the South focused on the conditions which produce poverty and on the resulting environmental threats to people, particularly to people’s health – e.g. through poor sanitation or flooding. Also looks at the structural conditions which cause people to degrade their environments, e.g. over-logging forests. Reflects the recognition that people who live in poverty are not a significant cause of environmental degradation as was previously portrayed in dominant discourses, often by proponents of the green agenda, e.g. conservationists in colonial Africa Green vs Brown Agenda: Typically proponents of the ‘green agenda’ have been seen as environmentalists; whereas those of the ‘brown agenda’ are seen as urbanists and development workers. The principle concern of the green agenda is presented as ecosystem protection and the immediate and deferred effects of human activity at the regional and global scale. Whilst the brown agenda is seen as focusing upon human well-being and social justice and the immediate problems at the local level, especially those suffered by low-income groups. It reflects the debate between environment and development. Both agendas underlined the need to combat poverty and to include those people who are traditionally disenfranchised and excluded from mainstream decision-making processes. The brown agenda places its emphasis on intragenerational equity, in recognising that all urban dwellers have needs for healthy and safe living and working environments and the infrastructure and services these require. Whereas the green agenda places its emphasis upon intergenerational equity, in the concern that urban development draws upon a finite resource base and degrades ecological systems in ways that compromise the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Promoting one agenda over the other has had the counterproductive effect of placing them in opposition to each other, competing for recognition, resources and practitioner support. Currently, both the green and brown agenda converge in highlighting the global environmental impacts of the unequal processes of consumption and production in different parts of the world with climate change challenges being perhaps the most obvious concern calling for a link across both agendas. Intergenerationality is interaction between members of different generations. Urbanization: Data on Urbanization: The rapid urbanization of the world’s population over the twentieth century is described in the 2005 Revision of the UN World Urbanization Prospects report. The global proportion of urban population rose dramatically from 13% (220 million) in 1900, to 29% (732 million) in 1950, to 49% (3.2 billion) in 2005. The same report projected that the figure is likely to rise to 60% (4.9 billion) by 2030. According to the UN State of the World Population 2007 report, sometime in the middle of 2007, the majority of people worldwide will be living in towns or cities, for the first time in history; this is referred to as the arrival of the "Urban Millennium" or the 'tipping point'. In regard to future trends, it is estimated 93% of urban growth will occur in developing nations, with 80% of urban growth occurring in Asia and Africa. -What is the difference between urbanization and urban growth? The difference between urbanization and urban growth is that urbanization is the increasing proportion of country's population living within urban areas (which would be given most likely in a percentage of the total population or a ratio), whereas urban growth is the increase in the size and population in an area over time, expressed in a number. So, urbanization is increase in proportion, whereas growth is the actual increase in number -What is the difference between a city and urban centre? A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement. Cities generally have complex systems for sanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, and transportation. The concentration of development greatly facilitates interaction between people and businesses, benefiting both parties in the process. A big city or metropolis usually has associated suburbs and exurbs. Such cities are usually associated with metropolitan areas and urban areas, creating numerous business commuters traveling to urban centers for employment. Urban center a large and densely populated urban area; may include several independent administrative districts. •Environmental problems 1. Disease-causing agents (pathogens) or pollutants in the human environment (in the air, soil, food or water) which can damage human health 2. Shortages of natural resources essential to human health (for instance insufficient fresh water) 3. Physical hazards (for example accidental fires or flooding for housing built on flood- plains or mudslides or landslides for housing built on a steep slopes •The Environment and Scale (home, work, and neighbourhood; in and around urban centres; and the global) •Urban Environmental Transitions: Environmental Problems: Environmental problems that low income groups face are often more related to inadequate provision of infrastructure and services Range of Environmental problems in Urban Areas  Need to understand the difference between env degradation and env hazards  In Africa, Asia and Latin America – high proportion of the poor face serious env hazards in their homes and workplaces  These hazards impose large burdens – ill health, injury, death  These hazards are a major contributor to poverty --But they are not causing env. degradation. example: inadequacies in provision for piped water, sanitation and drainage in most low income neighbourhoods mean very serious problems with insect-born-diseases such as malaria and dengue fever  Most serious diseases in Latin America, Asia and Africa are env. because they are transmitted thru air, water, soil or food (or insect/animal vectors) – as a result, urban centres can become among the most health threatening of all human environments with disease causing agents for ppl living in close proximity  Example: water related diseases are major contributors to health burdens suffered by most urban poor households.  Air borne diseases are among the world;s leading causes of death- but improving housing and other environmental conditions can reduce their incidence- medical interventions like immunization or rapid treatment are important for reducing health impact  Malaria – one of the most pressing water borne disease in many cities  Health problems associated with garbage because low income areas have the least adequate collection services leading to waste accumulation in open spaces and streets. This attracts disease carrying vectors and pests (rats, mosquitoes, flies). Other implications include: uncollected waste being washed into water bodies causing water pollution and blocking drainage systems  Without good env and health policies, it is difficult to control infectious diseases as societies urbanize and population movements increase. Disease causing agents can develop resistance or adapt to changing ecological circumstances that increase risk of infections  Africa, Asia, Latin America (680 million urban dwellers- lack adequate water provisions) and 850 million lack adequate sanitation  Approx. 100 million urban dwellers defecate in open spaces or into waste materials (ew.)  Chemical hazards increase in scale and severity with rapid industrialization and growth in traffic  Reducing chemical hazards mostly achieved by regulating the activities of businesses/enterprises  One of the most serious chemical hazards – indoor air pollution from smoke or fumes from open fires or poor ventilation  High levels of indoor air pollution can cause inflammation of the respiratory tract—reducing resistance to respiratory infections  Motor vehicle emissions also a major contributor of urban air pollution  Physical hazards cause of injury or death in low income populations  Accidents in home most common cause of injusry/death- impacts are serious in cities where most ppl live in accommodations with three or more persons to each room in shelters that are made from temporary and inflammable materials (with open fires or stoves)  Other areas where physical hazards need reducing: traffic management to minimize risk of motor vehicle accidents, second : reduce accidents in the workplace- need to promote safe working practices, third: ensuring adequate provision of safe recreational areas for children and the city The lack of basic infrastructure like proper sewers and drainage systems. Along with that overcrowding is also a problem and its creates a higher chance for the spread of airborne diseases amongst the population. It also increases the risk of accidents. Inadequate supply of water is also a big problem that contributes to environmental problems in urban areas. Human excreta are an extremely hazardous substance. Inadequate water and sanitation services haves resulted in high child and infant mortality rates and these are concentrated in the urban areas of the lower income developing regions of the world like Asia, Latin America and Africa. Poor sanitation coupled with unhygienic eating habits have resulted in a number of diseases primarily diarrhea which has a high infant and child deaths. There is also water borne intertestinal worms which contributes to poor nutrition and stomach aches. Poor drainage means it is a breeding ground for mosquitoes like Aedes – causes malaria and Anopheles – causes dengue fever. It also results in the spread of other water washed diseases like scabies and typhus. Example: Chittagong, Bangladesh. Nearly 200,000 of the households are served by 588 street vendors and other sources such as natural springs, canals and rainwater catchments. A 1993 survey that nearly ¾ of the metropolitan population relied on bucket or pit latrines. Households consumption of water is from various resources since most of the time the water supply via the pipes are not reliable at all. 30% of the resident dwellers in Adis Ababa use open fields for defecation and about 46 families have no sanitary facilities. 2/3 of the urban population in urban areas of the developing world have no area to dispose of the human excretion properly. There are some major cities and urban areas that have no sewers. Overcrowding is an issue in the urban areas of the low income countries. The residents already have low immunity due to poor nutrition and on top of that due to overcrowding diseases like meningitis, tuberculosis and influenza spreads easily amongst the population. Transport is a driving force shaping cities and communities, affecting not only patterns of physical movement but also fundamental social interactions and patterns of social health and well-being” (Questions of Equity) –GHGs and climate change: Transportation is important because it is major cause of pollution (mainly in the sub-sector of land transportation) and addressing this is a major part of addressing environmental issues in the developing world. The development of efficient and affordable travel is a major factor in saving the planet. –Form and patterns of urban expansion: In order to help develop your city like a sophisticated urban centre needs improvement of transportation centres. –Poverty and Livelihoods: Affordable transportation can greatly affect the economy because they will be accessible to all strata of the society. They create employment opportunities which can contribute to the economy and the income of people thereby aiding in efforts to minimize poverty. –Vulnerability and Risk: Individuals more susceptible to exploitation may face problems in terms of transportation e.g. muggings or sexual harassment. •Health: If a person is not healthy or handicapped or disabled and its easier to rob them. In most developing countries even though there is a lot of public transit but they don’t have any provisions for handicapped people that are present. •Gender: This applies specially to females. Females are more vulnerable to exploitation and sexual harassment. This is not only evident in developing countries like Japan which has the most advanced subway systems but even then there are incidents where women have been sexually harassed. Transportation is important because it is major cause of pollution (mainly in the sub-sector of land transportation) and addressing this is a major part of addressing environmental issues in the developing world. The development of efficient and affordable travel is a major factor in saving the planet. •Informal transit systems: –Demand Responsive –Some challenges: informal transit operators, like the informal sector in general, faces a level of precariousness and uncertainty in their work –Arise out of: •lack of capacity of formal systems •the inexistence of formal systems •cost of formal systems In response, the informal transport sector has burgeoned throughout cities in the both the developed and developing worlds, filling the gap of inadequate and increasingly expensive public transport. In many cases, these systems consist of non−motorized transport such as are found in Asia, or include the mini−vans (matatus) of Nairobi and Mexico City or the “Jeepneys” of Manila. While in some cases these informal systems are efficient, effective and meet real transport needs for many urban residents, in other cases they are yet to be regulated and organised thus posing a threat to road safety and the environment. Local, regional and national transport decision−makers and managers need the knowledge, tools and techniques to more rationally plan and regulate informal transport in order to maximize its inherent economic advantage vs. an existing and planned public transport. It is essential it be incorporated fully into the overall transport fabric of the city to provide a much−needed complementary role, particularly for those residents unable to afford cars. I am confident that this publication will help policy makers, managers and researchers working in the area of urban transport to further their knowledge and understanding of the dynamics of informal transport in the developing world. •Bus Rapid Transit (BRT): –International model: Curitiba, Brazil (Macedo 2004) -Curitiba has a well-planned and integrated transportation system, which includes dedicated lanes on major streets for a bus rapid transit system. The buses are long, split into three sections (bi-articulated), and stop at designated elevated tubes, complete with handicapped access. The system, used by 85% of Curitiba's population (2.3 million passengers a day). It is Convenient, comprehensive and affordable bus system: Riders pay same fare no matter how far they travel. In addition to its transport systems it has 120km of bicycle paths however biking to work is not facilitated. The system is still incomplete and must expand to wreak peak capacity; the Transmilenio is an example of a more efficient and better subsidized system of BRT. –Bogota, Colombia: Transmilenio and Mayor Peñalosa (Cervero 2005) - TransMilenio consists of several interconnecting BRT lines, each composed of numerous elevated stations in the center of a main avenue, or "troncal". Passengers typically reach the stations via a bridge over the street. Usually, four lanes down the center of the street are
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