GGR377 questions 2.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR377H5
Professor
Adrien Djomo
Semester
Fall

Description
1. Define the terms: sensitivity, vulnerability, adaptability, resilience, transformability •Sensitivity: •the degree to which a system is affected, either adversely or beneficially, by climate-related stimuli. •Vulnerability: •the degree to which a system is unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change. •Adaptive capacity: •the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) Definition Forest ecosystems Food security Water & Marine ecosystems Human population •Resilience: •the ability of a system to deal with change and continue to develop. 2. How can we measure the resilience capacity of an ecosystem 3. Why forest ecosystems are so important to most ecologist and how does climate change can affect forest ecosystems •Clean air •Clean water •Holds water so we don’t have as many floods •Holds the soil in place •Wildlife habitat •Biodiversity •Keeps carbon from going into the air •Food (plants, animals, nuts and seeds) 4. What is the land area coverage of forest ecosystems, what amount of carbon is stored in aboveground and belowground forests, How humans affect forest ecosystems •Forests cover about 30% of the world’s land area •Terrestrial carbon represents 80% of aboveground and 40% of below ground 5. Explain the world distribution of forest ecosystems as a function of mean annual precipitation and mean annual temperature 6. Use the example of USA and Canada to explain the long term migration of species as a result of change in climate conditions 7. How could be the migration of species at end of this century 8. Explain the negative and positive feedback of forest ecosystems and illustrate how the forest biodiversity could still be affected even with low human impact such as logging Negative feedbacks: fertilisation effect Deforestation open space for new species to grow. More incoming radiation stimulates the grow of new species in the forest ecosystems Increasing CO2 may also have negative feedback and improve tree growth Positive feedbacks Change in the forest can also affect the rainfall distribution and climate of the local region. The precipitation can be reduced due to three feedbacks: •Increase CO2 can cause stomatal closure within the leaves and reduce evapotranspiration •Increase T° can cause forest dieback and reduce evapotranspiration •Increase T ° can cause increased respiration from the soil and then more warming 9. What are the environmental factors that control agriculture production and food security •Available water •Temperature •Precipitation •Extreme weather •CO2 fertilization effect 10. How developed and developing countries will be affected by food security at increasing climate conditions Reduced food security 11. What are the distinction between C3 and C4 crops and how these crops may react at doubling CO2 scenario? What may happen if the CO2 and climate conditions keep increasing C3 plants: flourish in cool, wet, and cloudy climates, where light levels may be low, because the metabolic pathway is more energy efficient, and if water is plentiful, the stomata can stay open and let in more carbon dioxide. However, carbon losses through photorespiration are high. C4 plants: inhabit hot, dry environments, have very high water-use efficiency, so that there can be up to twice as much photosynthesis per gram of water as in C3 plants, but C4 metabolism is inefficient in shady or cool environments. Less than 1% of earth's plant species can be classified as C4. Ex. C3 crops: wheat, rice, soya bean Ex. C4 crops: maize, sorghum, sugar cane, millet, many pasture and forage grasses At doubling CO2 models predicts • 0-10% increase in growth of C4 crops •10-25% increase in growth of C3 crops If continued yield will decrease 12. What are the main factors contributing to ocean rise  Thermal Expansion  Glaciers and ice caps melting 13. How would be the impact of ocean level increase around the world  Increase in oceanic acidity  Extreme weather (heatwaves, elderly and people with health problems are vulnerable)  Spreading of diseases in a worm weather (tropical diseases may migrate to the mid-latitude) 14. Explain how human health will be affected by global warming around the world at increasing climate change scenario  Extreme weather (heatwaves, elderly and people with health problems are vulnerable)  Spreading of diseases in a worm weather (tropical diseases may migrate to the mid-latitude)  Malnutrition  Floods droughts deaths 1. What policy tools can be used to address climate issues?  Carbon tax  Emissions trading ($ for environmental services) 2. What are the key issues with ‘baseline’ measurements? Variable nature of climate has meant that setting baselines and developing International strategy has been problematic 3. What were the primary mechanisms provided by the Kyoto Protocol?  Carbon trading: o Emissions trading o Joint Implemetation o Clean Development Mechanism 4. In your opinion what was the biggest problem with Kyoto?  No participation by US, China, India  Based on carbon production if CO2 not consumption  China says it may have high emissions but these are produced on behalf of consumers in the developed world  Focuses on country emissions, excludes aviation and shipping  Creates major distortions in efficiency because different countries have different (or no) GHG caps  Carbon leakage: production moves from high to low (or no) cap locations 5. What are two examples of regional climate initiatives? Western Climate Initiative and EU Emissions Trading Scheme 6. What is Canada’s current goal for GHG emission reductions? 17% below 2005 emissions by 2020 (about 609 MT/a, or about 2% higher than 1990 levels) 7. What are the approaches that Canada is taking to address emissions?  Reduce large‐scale emitter footprint through technology  Carbon capture and storage  Electricity emission reductions 8. How do the approaches differ between provinces and the federal government? 9. Which provinces have a carbon tax? A ‘price’ on carbon? Alberta, British Columbia, Quebec 10. What is missing from Canada’s program to address GHG emissions? Light duty transport, heavy duty transport and other transport emissions 1. What per cent of GHG emissions are due to the residential sector – GTA? 25% 2. What is the direction of Canadian emissions trends? Increasing 3. Describe how the work of DMcKenzie-Mohr would inform your approach to engaging the public in sustainability issues vs traditional approaches. Traditional methods: Information intensive (radio, tv, internet, newsprint) do not work to change behaviour 4. What is the role of small commitments in engaging people in behavioural change? 5. Taking tree planting as an example, outline your own perceived barriers to this activity. Interview members of different ethno-cultural groups to understand others’ barriers. Write a reflection on your experience. 6. What is meant by social norms? Identify 1-3 conventional social norms related to household energy use e.g. transportation, home heating and water use etc. Discuss why these activities continue and effective ways they could be changed. 7. What are some effective ways to change social norms? Use the example of the blue box. 8. Why are prompts an important part of CBSM. Give some examples. 9. For each one of the top 10 (or 5) things that individuals can do to save energy in their homes, which ones would you recommend in order of effectiveness and why? 10. In light of what you have learned about CBSM, how effective are groups such as the Suzuki Foundation likely to be in getting consumers to change their behaviour and why? 11. Argue either for or against the proposition: “Given that CBSM shows that brochures, television and traditional media are not effective in changing peoples’ behaviours, groups such as the Suzuki Foundation should stop their work.” 1. Define with the main components climate modeling, give four advantages and some limitations linked with modelling climate Mathematical representation of the climate system Advantages • Scientific • Universal • Regional, global, long-term • Future prediction • Sensibility, feedback Limitations  2. What are the various processes involved in atmospheric modelling for weather forecast 3. How have been the growth of computer power in the past 60 years and explain how this growth has affected the performance of weather forecasting 1950 – 100 Floating Point Operations per Second (FLOPS) to 2010 100T FLOPS. Reduction in model errors and forecast errors. 4. For weather forecasting after several days, a model covering the entire globe is required. Explain why this is necessary and the parameters required for this model Circulation patterns are inter-connected • For several days, a model covering the globe is required • SH circulation today will affect NH weather after few days • Physical parameters (T°, pressure, humidity, velocity, etc.) are specified on a grid covering the globe 5. Describe the grid used
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