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Economic Geography and Agriculture

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ultimately, production is controlled by economic factors of demand, whether that demand is
expressed through a free market mechanism, government instruction, or the consumption
requirements of a single family producing for its own needs
Categories of Activity
Regionally varying environmental, cultural, technological, political, and market conditions
add spatial details to more generalized ways of classifying the worlds productive work
One approach to that categorization is to view economic activity as ranged along a
continuum of both increasing complexity of product or service and increasing distance from
the natural environment. Seen from that perspective, a small number of distinctive stages
of production and service activities may be distinguished
Primary activities are those that harvest
or extract some- thing from the earth-beginning of the production cycle, where humans are
in closest contact with the resources and potentialities
of the environment. -involve basic foodstuff and raw
material production.
-Hunting and gathering grazing, agriculture, fishing,
forestry, and mining and quarrying are example
Secondary activities are those that add
value to materials by changing their
form or combining them into more useful
therefore more valuable—commodities
-That provision of form utility may range from simple
handicraft production of pottery or woodenware to the
delicate assembly of electronic goods or space vehicles
-full array of manufacturing and pro- cessing
industries—are included in this phase of the
production process. Also included are the production
of energy (the power company”) and the construction
Tertiary activities consist of those
business and labour specializations that -include financial, business, professional, clerical, and
personal services
provide services to the primary and
secondary sectors and goods and services
to the general community and to the
-constitute the vital link between producer and
consumer, for tertiary occupations importantly include
the wholesale and retail trade activities—including
dot-com Internet sales—necessary in highly
interdependent societies
-Tertiary activities also provide essential information
to manufacturers: the knowledge of market demand
without which economically justifiable production
decisions are impossible
term quaternary is applied to this fourth
class of economic activities, which is
com- posed entirely of services rendered
by white collar professionals working
in education, government, management,
information processing, and research
- In economically advanced societies, a growing
number of individuals and organizations are engaged
in the processing and dissemination of information
and in the administration and control of their own or
other enterprises
- Sometimes, a subdivision of these management
functions—quinary activities—is distinguished to
recognize high-level decision-making roles in all types
of large organizations, public or private
term industryin addition to its common meaning as a branch of manufacturing activity—
is frequently employed as a substitute identical in meaning to activity as a designation of
these categories of economic enterprise
oThat is, we can speak of the steel, or automobile, or textile industry with all the
impressions of factories, mills, raw materials, and products each type of enterprise
These categories of production and service activities or industries help us see an
underlying structure to the nearly infinite variety of things people do to earn a living and to
sustain themselves
Type of Economic Systems
Broadly viewed, national economies in the early 21st century fall into one of three
major types of system: subsistence, commercial, or planned
Subsistence Economies goods and services are created for the use of the
producers and their kinship groups. Therefore,
there is little exchange of goods and only limited
need for markets
Commercial Economies become dominant in nearly all parts of the world,
producers or their agents, in theory, freely market their
goods and services, the laws of supply and demand
determine price and quantity, and market competition
is the primary force shaping production decisions and
Planned Economies associated with the communist-controlled societies that
have now collapsed in nearly every country where they
were formerly created or imposed, producers or their
agents disposed of goods and services through
government agencies that controlled both supply and

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