GGR208H5 Study Guide - Final Guide: Symbolic Power, Human Capital, Cultural Capital

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Published on 9 Jan 2013
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DEFINITIONS
Lives in time and place Effects of contextual change, caused by particular historical events on
individual life trajectories
Substantive Birth Cohort Ideas captured by ‘lives in time and place’. It represents generation, gender,
ethnicity, race, and class.
Timing of Lives Relates to social time, the timing of significant transitions, historical time, and duration
and sequence of life events.
Generation: The subjectively meaning cohort into which one is born. This concept is similar to the ‘lives
in time and place’ concept in Elder’s life-course perspective but reflects Manheim’s ideas involving the
sociological relevance of being born at a particular historical time in a given society”
Habitus: A relatively stable set of social attitudes, lifestyles, values, beliefs, dispositions, and
expectations that social actors hold, which reflect their social circumstances (such as racialization, class,
gender, sexuality, abilities, etc.). A person represents the embodiment of these social structures.
Biological Determinism: people’s dispositions, attitudes, behaviors, social roles, and other personal
qualities are determined by their biology. (i.e. men=doctors, women=nurses)
Gender Essentialism: Males and females are born with different natures. Thus, gender is culturally
determined (Sex = gender) a social construct (i.e. blue = boys, pink=girls)
Radicalization - a dialectical process by which meaning is attributed to particular biological features of
human beings, as a result of which individuals may be assigned to a general category of persons which
reproduces itself biologically
Economic Determinism: All social, cultural, and political aspects of social life are the direct result of
economic factors. In Marxism, it means that class is the fundamental form of inequality.
Resistance Individuals reject and act against social structures, can often lead to a violent opposition
Compulsory Heterosexuality lack of freedom women have to decide their sexual orientation
(homo/hetero). Phrase refers to the pressures that confront lesbians when they are forced to act
straight (or face discrimination).
Citizen - Members of nations or societies entitled to the benefits of being a member of that society.
However many individuals are denied full rights of citizenship where some rights are granted but others
denied. Those who are treated as non-citizens are denied all benefits of citizenship and left vulnerable
to exploitation.
Civil Citizenship T.H Marshall’s citizenship concept of an individual’s basic human rights. These include
the right to sign a legal contract, freedom of person and speech and the right to seek redress in the
courts.
Political Citizenship - T.H Marshall’s concept of an individual’s right to political involvement. This
guarantees a political voice for citizens (i.e. voting/seeking political office).
Social Citizenship T.H Marshall’s concept of right to full social inclusion in a society’s wealth. Citizens
should be guaranteed economic well being, education, health and inclusion in culture of their society.
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