GGR208H5 Study Guide - Final Guide: Symbolic Power, Human Capital, Cultural Capital
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Lives in time and place – Effects of contextual change, caused by particular historical events on
individual life trajectories
Substantive Birth Cohort – Ideas captured by ‘lives in time and place’. It represents generation, gender,
ethnicity, race, and class.
Timing of Lives – Relates to social time, the timing of significant transitions, historical time, and duration
and sequence of life events.
Generation: The subjectively meaning cohort into which one is born. This concept is similar to the ‘lives
in time and place’ concept in Elder’s life-course perspective but reflects Manheim’s ideas involving the
sociological relevance of being born at a particular historical time in a given society”
Habitus: A relatively stable set of social attitudes, lifestyles, values, beliefs, dispositions, and
expectations that social actors hold, which reflect their social circumstances (such as racialization, class,
gender, sexuality, abilities, etc.). A person represents the embodiment of these social structures.
Biological Determinism: people’s dispositions, attitudes, behaviors, social roles, and other personal
qualities are determined by their biology. (i.e. men=doctors, women=nurses)
Gender Essentialism: Males and females are born with different natures. Thus, gender is culturally
determined (Sex = gender) a social construct (i.e. blue = boys, pink=girls)
Radicalization - a dialectical process by which meaning is attributed to particular biological features of
human beings, as a result of which individuals may be assigned to a general category of persons which
reproduces itself biologically
Economic Determinism: All social, cultural, and political aspects of social life are the direct result of
economic factors. In Marxism, it means that class is the fundamental form of inequality.
Resistance – Individuals reject and act against social structures, can often lead to a violent opposition
Compulsory Heterosexuality – lack of freedom women have to decide their sexual orientation
(homo/hetero). Phrase refers to the pressures that confront lesbians when they are forced to act
straight (or face discrimination).
Citizen - Members of nations or societies entitled to the benefits of being a member of that society.
However many individuals are denied full rights of citizenship where some rights are granted but others
denied. Those who are treated as non-citizens are denied all benefits of citizenship and left vulnerable
Civil Citizenship – T.H Marshall’s citizenship concept of an individual’s basic human rights. These include
the right to sign a legal contract, freedom of person and speech and the right to seek redress in the
Political Citizenship - T.H Marshall’s concept of an individual’s right to political involvement. This
guarantees a political voice for citizens (i.e. voting/seeking political office).
Social Citizenship – T.H Marshall’s concept of right to full social inclusion in a society’s wealth. Citizens
should be guaranteed economic well being, education, health and inclusion in culture of their society.