GGR287H5 Study Guide - Final Guide: Insecticide, Agribusiness, Agrochemical

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22 Apr 2012
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5. According to Food First and other critics, what is the "Blue Revolution" and how did it work out in the shrimp production
sector? How do Tim Lang and Michael Heasman define food injustice?
Blue Revolution:
the concerted effort to increase the industrially farmed production of a diverse array of aquatic species. Like the earlier Green
Revolution, the Blue Revolution is frequently promoted as a way to help feed the world's hungry by increasing the supply of
affordable food.
Blue revolution created industrial shrimp farming. This caused social dislocation, ecological change and environmental destruction
worse than many earlier forms of Green Revolution technologies. One of the most critical problems identified: loss of communal
resources.
Tim Lang and Michael Heasman define food injustice as “the maldistribution of food, poor access to a good diet, inequities in the
labour process and unfair returns for key suppliers along the food chain.”
20. What are the main benefits of standards and grades? Those of brands?
Standards and grades:
o Producers of quality output may obtain maximum value.
o Customers know exactly what they are getting.
o Handling and transportation done more efficiently by combining similar goods from different providers.
Brands:
o To address adulteration and guarantee quality.
o Customer loyalty.
24. What is the defining characteristic of oilseeds? What is the main Canadian contribution to the oilseed industry? Where are
most Canadian sunflowers grown? What are the main obstacles that Southern American soy producers have had to contend
with? Which soybean variety is credited with significantly extending the range of soybean production in Ontario? Why and
how do soybeans need to be processed before being fed to animals? What other alternative approach to using soybeans as
animal food is currently being examined?
Main Canadian contribution:
Canola
Where most Canadian sunflowers are grown:
Southern Manitoba
Main obstacles that South American soy producers have had to contend with:
Poor road and rail infrastructure.
Economic instability and environmental concerns.
Soybean variety credited with significantly extending the range of soybean production in Ontario:
The “Maple” series.
Why and how do soybeans need to be processed before being fed to animals:
Processing must be done to separate soybean oil from protein meal.
Three processes:
Solvent extraction: using hexane to wash oil from flaked oilseeds.
Continuous pressing: using a screw at higher temperatures to press oil from conditioned soybeans.
Hydraulic/batch pressing: intermittent pressing at higher temperatures to press oil from conditioned soybeans.
Alternative approach to using soybeans as animal food currently being examined:
o Use as a biodiesel (soy methyl esters)
26. What have been the main trends in recent years in terms of grain and horticultural crops? How significant have the latter
become compared to the former? Where has most of this growth taken place?
Trends in recent years in terms of grain and horticultural crops:
Increased profitable diversification into horticultural crops.
Between 1960-2000, area devoted to horticultural crop worldwide 2x.
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Significance of horticultural crops compared to grains:
Total value of horticultural crops x2 that of cereal crops and require more labour.
Most of this growth has occurred in Latin America and China.
27. Name two of the four main environmental advantages of the oil palm crop.
i) High yields
ii) Good energy balance (fertilizing labour, transport, processing,) < less energy
iii) Efficient carbon sink
iv) Ecological functions of a rainforest (rain, erosion prevents invasive species but then soil has no capacity to maintain
biodiversityis depleted of nutrients)
28. Name two of the three main issues associated with oil palm cultivation.
i) Destruction of tropical rainforests
ii) Indigenous land rights (harvesting, pesticide application)
iii) Labour rights abuse
29. List and describe briefly five (5) crucial processes in coffee production.
1) Manual harvesting
2) Sorting before pulping
3) Pulping coffee (manual/washing station): separates outer skin from the bean
4) Coffee washing
5) Coffee drying: dried on sun to 11-12% moisture content
30. According to your professor, what are the general pros and cons of eating meat versus plant food?
Pros:
- Less toxic
- Concentrated source of nutrients (lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals=, calories, high quality proteins and fats
- Most digestible plants deficient in essential amino acids and vitamins (such as vitamin B12)
- Most plants more tedious to prepare
Cons:
- Animals can run or fight back
- Spoils more quickly
- Contains dangerous parasites
31. According to your professor, what are the main characteristics of modern industrial livestock production?
- Raising similar animals in close proximity
- Standardized feed for rapid weight gain and uniformity
- Low levels of non-therapeutic antibiotics and growth hormones to stimulate growth and improve production and
performance
- Genetic selection to accentuate desirable traits to create uniform meat products
- Mechanization of feeding, watering, and other husbanding activities
32. List 3 advantages of domesticating (as opposed to hunting) animals. What were the three main different environments in
which pigs used to be raised? What is pannage? List two (2) historical advantages and two (2) historical disadvantages in
keeping pigs as opposed to ruminants
Advantages of Domesticating
1. Insurance against crop failure (reliability)
2. Convenience
3. Milk
4. Transportation
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5. Manure
Three main different environments in which pigs used to be raised
1. Forest
2. Farm
3. Cities
Pannage:
Pannage is the food obtained from pasturing in a forest, for example, mast (nuts from the forest floor such as acorns, chestnuts,
beechnuts, hazelnuts).
Advantages in keeping pigs as opposed to ruminants
1. Prolific
2. Semi-wild foraging pigs could fend off predators (even wolves)
3. Rapid growth (high conversion ratio)
4. Omnivorous (organic waste of all kinds; surplus crops from sweet potatoes to barley; whey)
Disadvantages in keeping pigs as opposed to ruminants
1. Low ability to do well on cellulose alone (monogastric)
2. No primary non meat uses:
No dairy products, source of power (traction) or transportation
Manure difficult to collect, less valuable than sheep and horse
3. Before motorized transportation, didn‟t travel as well (shorter legs, lost more weight, more troublesome)
33. What were the main improvements that took place in dairy production in North America during the 19th century?
- Introduction and improvements in dairy breeds
- Year round (improved) feeding and milking
- Creation of pastures, increased fodder production
- Better feeding systems, silos, barns
- Improvement in production methods (pasteurization; Babcock test for milk fat content, TB detection tests)
34. What are "broilers"? Why was the practice of keeping them indoors developed? What are "layers"? Why are they
typically kept in cages?
- “broilers” are chicken raised to become meat
Indoor confinement:
To reduce:
1. Losses of animals to predators
2. Exposure to harsh weather (And resulting diseases)
3. Exposure to diseases of wild animals
- “layers” are chicken that lay eggs
Cages:
To prevent:
1. Cannibalism
2. Fighting
3. Increase in diseases
35. List and discuss briefly three (3) solutions or approaches put forward by Carl Safina to improve the state of the world's
fisheries
1) Closed areas:
- Closures have been found to result in increases in fish populations, in the size of the individual fish, and in greater
diversity of species
2) Mixed Zoning:
- A comprehensive zoning program should designate a mix of areas, including areas that are entirely open to any kind of
fishing at any time, areas that are closed to fishers using mobile gear, areas that are closed to fishers using gear that drags
along the seafloor, areas that are closed in some seasons, and areas that are fully protected no-take zones.
- Zoning would better protect sensitive seafloor habitats and aquatic nursery areas from the kinds of activities that hurt
those areas, while allowing harmless activities to proceed.
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