HIS 284 REVIEW
Oracle bones -
Traced back to Shang dynasty ( 1700s-1100s), graphs and letters inscribed on bones,
an ancient way to document and predict the future, gave sense of the certainty to the
The use of oracle bones raised the needs for knowledge people to interpret and read
what meant on the bones and advised the rulers. This needs for knowledge people was
the first emergence of social system that divided the labor divisions, and the emergence
of social cast and hierarchy.
introduced in 6th century, it introduced a new form of warfare. Before the emergence of
infantry battle, only chariots existed and only noble people got the chance to fight. the
generation of infantry battle created conditions for a more complex social structure,
contributed to social mobility and demanded for military experts and divided labor.
The representative of confucianism is Kongzi, called Confucius by many and Mengzi.
The most famous book “The analects” was the collection of Kongzi’s teachings and
dialogs. Kongzi believed that people should learn the past sages and gain from them.
He thought that he transmitted but not invented the wisdoms from the sages, and
actively help the rulers to practice goodness, righteousness to build a united benevolent
society. He also thought human nature was good.
the representative of Daoism is Zhuangzi and Laozi. They travelled around the central
states to advise the rulers. Daoism believed that the only way to make the world
peaceful is do nothing about the world, let things go the way they supposed to go. No
large societies, no civilization, no violence, basically, do nothing and withdrawal from the
Representative of legalism is Han Feizi. He believed that the human nature was bad,
and the only way to united the world and bring peace was by force.
=> modern society combine and share the solutions from those three to solve the
Qin State ( 221-207BCE )-
Shi Huangdi the very first time established an empire in the central state, the first time
achieved standardization, unification and bureaucratization . The establishment of the
empire was a combination of Legalism and Confucianism. And this was the first time the
concept of “ Mandate of Heaven” got generated and introduced.
Mandate of Heaven-
one has to earn the mandate to rule. One was choose to govern when he knew the
sages’s knowledge and wisdom and be able to show it in physical power. Mandate of
Heaven legitimated the rule.
The Mandate of Heaven (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tin mìng ) is a traditional Chinese philosophical
concept concerning the legitimacy of rulers.
The Mandate of Heaven postulates that heaven would bless the authority of a just ruler, but
would be displeased with a despotic ruler and would withdraw its mandate, leading to the
overthrow of that ruler. The Mandate of Heaven would then transfer to those who would rule best
expansive and flexible -border that land can be traded and sold.
centre and peripheries
existence of hierarchy- people were not equal, they were doomed to be in classes.
self-understood of heterogeneous- they know they were doomed to be in different social
it’s a trade route from east asia to center asia and to east europe. This road route was
not fixed, it changed constantly to adjust to goods, environment, and politics etc. The
trade was not make one time from east asia to east europe, but from people to people,
towns to towns, cities to cities, and finally, goods from asia got to east europe. at this
time, china and Europe were indirectly traded. During the trade along Silk Road,
Buddhism was introduced from india to China, although the existence of Buddhism in
China was far earlier, but during that time, the influence of Buddhism peaked.
First world system (13 century)-old way of trade
people in the world traded indirectly. there were 6-7 systems, and trade were made
inside the systems, but each system overlapped with each other, which made
intersystem trade possible.
silver trade-new way of trade
silver economy happened in 17th century, euro ship silver to china to exchange for
goods, helped euro stay in new world for a long time. because of the silver trade, china
and euro had direct connection. SuZhou, HangZhou direct spot of trade.
=> in the new system, different parts of the world were connected directly. in the old
system, the world was connected through sub-systems.
multiethnic, manchu, mongols, chinese, tibetans....Qing called themselves a dynasty to
show they were part of China, called they got the mandate of heaven, to rule by
confucianism, respect local rules, culture and system.
Qing had two capital, one is Beijing, one is Chengde, which was close to non-chinese
people, close to alliances and kept the habit of hunting-manchu way of life.
Qing experienced a long period of unprecedented peace and prosperity, and formed the
foundation of modern china.
-population grow to 400M
-ecological change => chances of natural disasters increased, and probability of rivals
-territorial expansion=> northwest of area add to china
Macartney Mission (1792-1794)
trade imbalance between china and euro, euro import luxurious goods and pay silver to
china, when euro went out of silver, it decided to trade with staff instead of silver to
balance the import of luxurious goods, the emergence of opium.
euro didn’t have direct access to inner china, which they want to have. Euro wanted to
set up office in Beijing and got access to Chinese market and allowed chinese to do the
same in Britain, which were refused by Qianlong emperor. Qianlong thought if gave
privilege to Britain, then had to give the same to other countries and tribes, otherwise
unequal. at that time both Britain and China assumed themselves as the central of the
world and their own way of trade as equal way.
Opium war-(1839-1842, 1856-1860)
when euro can not longer sustained the need for tea in euro, and domestic political
pressure increased, euro decided to impose opium trade. during that period of time,
Britain centered at south britain and got access to coal development, which created
conditions for later technology revolution. China centered in lower Yangzi River with no
access to coals, therefore comparably restrained in technology development.
The confidence gained from the technology let the euro looked at china differently. They
thought that the opium trade with china helped china open immobile chinese market,
induce free trade, and civilization.
extraterritorial rights for britain, open treaty spots ( Hongkong gave to britain)
=> other euro countries come to request the same.
the driving force of imperialism
capitalism(industry capital, labour, =>market overseas happened
Traced back to shang dynasty ( 1700s-1100s), graphs and letters inscribed on bones, an ancient way to document and predict the future, gave sense of the certainty to the rulers. The use of oracle bones raised the needs for knowledge people to interpret and read what meant on the bones and advised the rulers. This needs for knowledge people was the first emergence of social system that divided the labor divisions, and the emergence of social cast and hierarchy. Infantry battle- introduced in 6th century, it introduced a new form of warfare. The representative of confucianism is kongzi, called confucius by many and mengzi. The most famous book the analects was the collection of kongzi"s teachings and dialogs. Kongzi believed that people should learn the past sages and gain from them. He thought that he transmitted but not invented the wisdoms from the sages, and actively help the rulers to practice goodness, righteousness to build a united benevolent society.