multiethnic, manchu, mongols, chinese, tibetans....Qing called themselves a dynasty to
show they were part of China, called they got the mandate of heaven, to rule by
confucianism, respect local rules, culture and system.
Qing had two capital, one is Beijing, one is Chengde, which was close to non-chinese
people, close to alliances and kept the habit of hunting-manchu way of life.
Qing experienced a long period of unprecedented peace and prosperity, and formed the
foundation of modern china.
-population grow to 400M
-ecological change => chances of natural disasters increased, and probability of rivals
-territorial expansion=> northwest of area add to china
Macartney Mission (1792-1794)
trade imbalance between china and euro, euro import luxurious goods and pay silver to
china, when euro went out of silver, it decided to trade with staff instead of silver to
balance the import of luxurious goods, the emergence of opium.
euro didn’t have direct access to inner china, which they want to have. Euro wanted to
set up office in Beijing and got access to Chinese market and allowed chinese to do the
same in Britain, which were refused by Qianlong emperor. Qianlong thought if gave
privilege to Britain, then had to give the same to other countries and tribes, otherwise
unequal. at that time both Britain and China assumed themselves as the central of the
world and their own way of trade as equal way.
Opium war-(1839-1842, 1856-1860)
when euro can not longer sustained the need for tea in euro, and domestic political
pressure increased, euro decided to impose opium trade. during that period of time,
Britain centered at south britain and got access to coal development, which created
conditions for later technology revolution. China centered in lower Yangzi River with no
access to coals, therefore comparably restrained in technology development.
The confidence gained from the technology let the euro looked at china differently. They
thought that the opium trade with china helped china open immobile chinese market,
induce free trade, and civilization.
extraterritorial rights for britain, open treaty spots ( Hongkong gave to britain)
=> other euro countries come to request the same.
the driving force of imperialism
capitalism(industry capital, labour, =>market overseas happened