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Midterm Key Term Notes The following contains very detailed descriptions of all of the key terms that were on the midterm. It contains identification of the terms and the significance of them. If you study these notes, you should do very well on the midte

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Valerie Hebert
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Identify: prejudice against or hostility towards Jews, collection of myths, lies, contradictions,
hatred of Jewish ―race‖ Jews remain Jews no matter what, all negative stereotypes are
-coined by Wilhelm Marr 1870 comes from the idea that Semites were a race, legitimately
stood for a language grouping, but become synonymous w/ Jews, roots in linguistic grouping
-meaning changed, anti-semitism vs anti-Semitism
-outgrowth of anti-Judaism (conflict), rooted in Christian theology
-peaked in popularity in 1893
-19thC AS became radicalized in 20th Cen
-Nazi brand of AS was fantastical, lethal to a degree that had been not been seen before
- manifested in many ways, ranging from individual expressions of hatred
and discrimination against individual Jews to organized violent attacks by mobs or
even state police or military attacks on entire Jewish communities.
-extreme instances of persecution include the First Crusade of 1096, the expulsion from
England in 1290, the Spanish Inquisition, the expulsion from Spain in 1492, the expulsion from
Portugal in 1497, various pogroms, the Dreyfus Affair, and perhaps the most infamous, the
Holocaust under Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany.
-AS as a backlash from emancipation, German nationalism Jews excluded from clubs, pol
parties (except soc/commie), officer court, limited to lowest lvls of academic profession
Ruther: Spain convert or get out, many converted and assimilated, rose up in Spanish society,
genealogy had to be searched, ―dress rehearsal‖ for the modern antisemitist (89)
Why Significant:
-start of the answer ―why the Jews, starting point for the genocide
-grew over the period of time of the depression, extreme views appealed to struggling public
- Jochmann: Antisemitism has become a constitutive element of nationalism, an integral part of
a new imperialist drive in Germany
-Volkov ―cultural code‖
-weren’t allowed to get involved in trades had to exploit financial realm, only professions
they could get into, become wealthy
-hate not unique to the Nazis
-Nazi anti-Semitism fixated on fantasy relating to a Jewish conspiracy to dominate the world
- Saul Friedlander: Hitler and his associates preached redemptive anti-Semitism=the belief that
the Jews were the root of all evil and that Germany could be saved from collapse only by total
removal of Jews and Jewish influence
-9 yrs before becoming the leader of Germany, Hitler writes mein kampf
-Jews portrayed as ―ultimate evil‖ if not annihilated, Germany would cease to exist, threat to
the world

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-Nazis didn’t invent this, they took control and intensified
-1965 Pope issued a statement ―Vatican Council II‖ acknowledged link btwn Christian theology
and the Holocaust
-Vatican Council: Vatican’s condemnation of the Jews for killing Jesus helping to spread anti-
Semitism among the general public
Identify: Prejudice against the Jewish faith, implies members of Jewish faith could convert,
where AS stems from
-1871 Emancipation German unification
-privileges of heredity, nobility went away even Jews could obtain power, constitution
granted equal rights of people (Jews could vote, greater access to edu, etc) Jews entered the
professions, took advantage of the opportunity
-Emancipation lead to conflict, many assumed it would lead to Jewish assimilation
Why Significant: key to understanding AS, led to AS, it tried to force Jews to either convert or
face persecution, profound impact on pop culture, automatic contempt of Jews
Historical Background / Where does it come from? Messiah (savior of the world sent by God)
Jewish Jews chosen by God to be ―his people‖ special relationship, law given to Moses,
told Jesus how to live, God promises to send a messiah, establish kingdom of God on earth
Christians: this promise of a messiah has been fulfilled (Jesus), believe he rose from the dead,
those who believe in Jesus will ascend to heaven ―come to God‖ one becomes a Christian to
believe in the messiah a duty to spread this msg around the world
-Jews didn’t believe Jesus was the messiah, the 2 stood in opposition, the Christians ―won‖ this
-4th Century, Constantine converts to Christianity, wins, becomes law of the land, has the Roman
Empire behind it, becomes state religion, law is behind anti-Jewish prejudice, transforms into
-Church has to delegitimize the Jewish faith allowed to use cinigogs, can do it, can’t expand
-Destruction of Jewish temple of Romans in 70, exile logic that they are a punished people, if
the Jews suffer it is b/c they have rejected God
-early Christian theology: Judaism is an obsolete faith laid foundation for legitimate
persecution of Jews, no abuse was too extreme for deicide no auth (lawyers, judges), couldn’t
own land, can’t own shops, be in trade guild, outward marks, ghettos, curfew, special taxes
-year 1000 new myths to justify violence
―myth of ritual murder‖ Jews kill Christian children to use their blood / Jews conspired w/
leapers, created the bubonic plague, myths came into Christian pop culture
-―Passion Plays stirred up anti-Jewish thoughts
-Pogrum ―devastation‖
-Crusades killing & conversion of Jews, ¼ to 1/3 of Jews in France and Germany dead

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-Euro countries moved to expel Jews, later returned, became pedlars
-pop culture created mass paranoia, even as church loses power, images still remain current and
Ruther: Christian teaching created inferior view of Jews. Christian laws held by state excluded
Jews, Chris theo Jewish persecution
Edward Flannary (book: Anguish of the Jews) also sees trend of theo, church was not
monolithic, different churches acted differently vs. Jews, was not 1 mind, those who killed the
Jews were peasants, not bishops or nobles, many popes formally declared ritual murder a myth,
some prohibited forced baptisms, condemned violence, never outlawed practice of Judaism (for
2nd coming to exist, Jews must exist, were tolerated)
Yerushalmi: if geno was a consequence of Chris theo teaching, why were they not destroyed long
ago? Never declared Judaism a heresy, argues that there must have been deeper reasons why they
were not destroyed ―Genocide would require a quantum leap into another dimension,
-every life is important to God = Chris core, Christianity created the climate, not the sufficient
Weimar Republic
Identify: The Weimar Republic lasted from 1918 until 1933. It was created following Germany’s
defeat in WWI, and was intended to foster the rise of a pluralist, pacifist democracy in Germany,
which had known only absolutist monarchical rule since its formation in 1871. However, by
1930 the Weimar Republic suffered a crisis of confidence with the onset of economic depression
and continuing political fragmentation, with multiple parties each commanding support from
certain subsections of German society.
-name given to the parliamentary republic established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial
form of government.
-progressive, separate church and state, emancipation
-following WWI, the republic emerged from the German Revolution in November 1918. In
1919, a national assembly convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the German Reich
was written.
-named after Weimar, the city where the constitutional assembly took place
-In its 14 years, the Weimar Republic was faced with numerous problems,
including hyperinflation, political extremists and their paramilitaries, and hostility from the
victors of WWI. However, it overcame many discriminatory regulations of the Treaty of
Versailles, reformed the currency, unified tax politics and the railway system.
-many govts, unstable political scene (stemming from proliferation of pol parties resulting from
PR), gave everyone equal rights
Allen: Weimar collapse should be no surprise
Berger: Weimar had as good of a chance at surviving as any
Challenges of Weimar Period:
1. Republic w/o Republicans institution of the republic was not true revolution, didn’t change
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