Ottoman Exam Review.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIS204H5
Professor
Milena Methodieva
Semester
Winter

Description
Ottoman History Exam Review Topics Question 1  The origins and expansion of the Ottoman state. o Seljuk’s were defeated by Mongols and several Turks migrated to Anatolia o Osman was a member in the many Turkoman principalities  Osman apparently had a dream of future greatness o Expansion was allowed due to two main reasons.  Located at border within Byzantine empire (Opportunity to wage Gaza)  Weakness and civil wars in the Byzantine empire and Balkan states  No single power in Balkans able to fight Ottomans  Also several needed Ottoman help  Role of Gaza o Holy war for the expansion of Muslim domain o It was a raiding activity against infidels (who were the Byzantines)  No head-on confrontations, usually surprise attacks o Jihad had to be defensive and have permission from caliphate whereas Gaza was just to attack  Strategic location of Ottoman state o Because of the Ottoman takeover of the Dardanelles, more Turkomans were able to attack and step foot into Europe  Ottoman institutions contributing to expansion and consolidation of Ottoman power o Recruitment of Janissaries (Devsirme) o Timar System helped control portions of the empire o Bringing in settlers from Anatolia to new regions (sometimes forcefully) o Brutal way to unearth new successors (Civil wars between brothers)  Role of the army o Janissaries were the main army  They were household troops and bodyguards for the Sultan  Trained 365 days a year and was one of the first states to maintain a standing army  They served as policemen and firefighters during peacetime  International Developments o French relationships with Ottoman was strong th o By the 16 century, they were seen as an extremely strong and threatening force under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent Question 2 th  Provincial administration and economy till 17 Century o Ottoman Society – Askeri on the top and Re’aya on the bottom  Askeri meant military, did not pay tax (Janissaries, Sipahis)  Re’aya meant flock, peasants merchants artisans, paid taxes Ottoman History Exam Review Topics  The Timar System o Began in the late 14 Century to 16 Century, changes took place in 17 o Founded by Murad I o Was not applied throughout all Ottoman domain, just Balkans and Anatolia o A Timar was a piece of state owned land usually consisting of villages. It was not private property. It was held by Sipahis who did not own it; he administered it and lived off its taxes as long as he fought in the army. The better the Sipahi performs allows him to gain more Timar’s  Sipahis provided military services, administrative services, local policing o Surveys were completed in order to keep the Sipahis on track o The Jizye was a tax paid by non-Muslims o Tax farms were initialized on regions that did not contain the Timar System o As the 17 – 18 century was approaching the Timar system began dissolving  There was an influx of janissary troops and less Sipahis  Wars became more expensive and difficult to finance  Less Conquests meant less land which meant less Timar’s to give out  Sipahis had to start paying for several costs in their Timar’s which the Sultans did before  Later on provincial governors were allowed to hold Timar’s, provincial administration lost its military character as they were focused solely on fiscal work Question 3  Selim I (1512-1520) o Expanded the Empire in the middle east (Conquests of Syria, Egypt, and incorporation of Mecca and Medina) o Ottomans became primary Sunni Muslim power in the world o Several wars with the Safavids and Mamluks o Ottomans took control over Mecca and Medina through the family of Sherifs (descendants of the family of Prophet Muhammad)  Sherifs never paid taxes, Ottomans gave them donations  Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) o At this time Ottoman Empire emerged as most powerful Muslim state o Conquest of Hungary, Iraq, Libya etc. o Controlled red sea, First to be called Caliph o Development of architecture, arts. (He was an accomplished Poet)  Compilations of illustrated books accounting deeds of the Sultan  Miniature paintings  Mimar Sinan was a famous architect (Suleiman Mosque) o Codification of law (reconstruction of Ottoman Legal System) Ottoman History Exam Review Topics Question 4  Non-Muslims in the Ottoman Empire o Christian/Jewish laws regulated the personal affairs of the empires Christian/Jew subjects o Conversions to Islam not forced o The Balkans consisted mostly of Christian communities o Jews were allowed to build synagogues, most of them lived  Important economic and commercial elites, connections between the empire and Europe o Lived peacefully and practiced their religion in return for recognizing Muslim political authority and paying a special tax called the Jizye o Non-Muslims were not allowed to marry Muslims o Millet System  Separation of legal courts pertaining to personal law under each community (Muslim Sharia, Christian Canon Law, Jewish Halakha)  An example of pre-modern religious pluralism  At first this was not an Empire-wide system but by the 19 century it increased and became a political meaning o They were kind of separated from the Muslims, as the Muslims were the full authority o After the Tanzimat the status of non-Muslims grew exponentially  Non-Muslims and Muslims were equal  Abdulhamid II and the Young Turks felt that the loyalty to the state was more important rather than the loyalty of Islam  Christians and Jews were part of high positions in the CUP etc. Question 5  Sultanate of Women (16 – 17 Century) o Women during this time had a lust for power and intrigue in ottoman politics o Ottoman state is no longer expansionist but sedentary o Traditionally strong connection between mother and son o The Harem  Woman’s quarters of the imperial family  Unlike western connotation of a sexual harem this was not like that at all  In the Harem there was a Haseki (favorite) and the Valide sultan (mother of sultan) o After a concubine had a son, the sultan no longer had sexual relations with her o This changed when Suleiman married Hurrem and had many children with her  Hurrem acted as an advisor to Suleiman  After this, Valide Sultans began consulting their sons and later on if their sons were too young the mother would be practically the acting Sultan Ottoman History Exam Review Topics  The Valide sultan could exercise the most political power if her son was young or disabled, however this was limited if she met opposition from son or other people from positions of authority  Basically she ran as Sultan through her son  Most influential Valide was Kosem Mahpeyker who ruled for 28 years as the sultan of her many sons. She was killed by the last Valide Sultan, Turhan who relinquished the power to the Grand Vizier (1656) o The woman’s involvement in the empire’s politics helped to keep the empire together for a long period of crisis Question 6  Period of Crisis in the Ottoman Empire (17 to 18 century) o Long wars, no major conquests or opportunity for taking booty o Wars became more expensive and difficult to finance also Timar System failing o Jelali revolts in Anatolia th o 18 Century Summary  By the 18 century the Sultan had little authority beyond Istanbul  Power of provinces were in the hands of strong notables  Military Weakness  No direct control of North African provinces, also the re-emergence of Mamluks from Egypt, Napoleons invasion of Egypt (Ottoman control weakened even further, peace treaty with France later)
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