History Finals Answers.doc

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Department
History
Course
HIS242H5
Professor
Annibel Jenkins
Semester
Fall

Description
Why do we speak of a crisis of democracy in interwar Europe What was the significance of this event What were its effects WWI ripped through European democracies intensified by the Great DepressionThe polarization of Europeans towards either the radical left or the extreme right resulting in rightwing authoritarian states in Italy 1922 Germany 1933 and Portugal also 1933 and as we know fascist Germany and Italy go on to start WWIIIn Germany the Nazi Party becomes a major party but was never actually voted into powerin an attempt to use Hitlers popular movement to move Germany towards an even more authoritarian system Hindenburg appoints Hitler as Chancellor who then seizes power quicklyThe liberal states were deprived by their depression remedies of both the material and moral means and the will to oppose the dictators resolutelyOriginally the German republic had been governed by the Great Coalition comprised of no fewer than 5 political parties but after the Great Depression came along the Great Coalition splintered over how to deal w it ex cutting unemployment benefits raise taxesIn order to appease American creditors the government decided to balance the budget by reducing unemployment benefits angering the German trade unions which forced the Social Democratic deputies to withdraw their support from the govtMullers govt resigned on March 27 1930Weimar Republics parliamentary system ceases to function at this pointFor the next 3 years Germany was governed wo any parliamentary majorityparliamentary deadlockIn response president Hindenburg used the authority granted by Article 48 to govern by decree in case of emergencyHindenburg appoints Bruning as Chancellor bc he had administrative experience in the German Catholic trade union org and bc he knew how to follow orders former member of reservesBruning tried to cure the economic depression w deflation cutting prices wages and state expenditure to stem foreign capital flight planned a customs union w Austria and campaigned for German parity in armamentseconomy worsened unemployment increased France fought off the customs union by withholding assistance to Viennese banks and France blocked Germanys armaments parity proposal Wo foreign or domestic success Bruning wanted to return to parliamentary democracy and calls for new elections by dissolving the dormant Reichstag in Sept 1930the depressionspread anger and frustration polarized the electorate allowing the Nazi Party to gain 107 seats Communists also gainedndHindenburg replaces the Chancellor more than once wins the presidential reelections the 2 round and in another parliamentary reelection the Nazis gain 373 of the voteHindenburg refuses Hitlers desire for certain ministries and the Chancellorship but as the anarchy continues and Hitlers popular movement grows stronger Hindenburg appoints Hitler as Chancellor bc he thought he could use it to stem dissidence on Jan 30 1933NOTE Hitler was never popularly elected he was appointed by rightwing who wanted rightwing authoritarian state not fascismTLDReconomic depression sends parliament into deadlock Hindenburg bypasses democracy and seizes power w Article 48 and appoints an ineffectual Chancellor This Chancellor creates only more anarchy and economic woes increasing polarizing of the votes in the reelections of the parliament which brings the Nazis to power With greater exposure to the masses comes greater power and Hindenburg then decides to use the Nazi popular movement to control the masses by appointing Hitler as Chancellor And then the rest is history
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