The Charter Oath was promulgated at the enthronement of Emperor Meijiof Japan on 7April 1868. The Oath
outlined the main aims and the course of action to be followed during Emperor Meiji's reign, setting the legal stage for
Japan's modernization. This also set up a process of urbanization as people of all classes were free to move jobs so
people went to the city for better work. It remained influential, if less for governing than inspiring, throughout
the Meiji era and into the twentieth century, and can be considered the first constitutionof modern Japan.
The Xinhai Revolution, or the Hsin-hai Revolution, also known as the Revolution of 1911 or the Chinese
Revolution, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty, the Qing Dynasty, and established
the Republic of China. The revolution was named Xinhai (Hsin-hai) because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai
stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar. The revolution consisted of many revolts and uprisings.
The turning point was the Wuchang Uprising on October 10, 1911, that was a result of the mishandling of the Railway
Protection Movement. The revolution ended with the abdication of the "Last Emperor" Puyi on February 12, 1912, that
marked the end of over 2,000 years of imperial rule and the beginning of China's republican era. The revolution arose
mainly in response to the decline of the Qing state, which had proven ineffective in its efforts to modernize China and
confront new challenges presented by foreign powers, and was exacerbated by ethnic resentment against the
ruling Manchu minority.Manyundergroundanti-Qinggroups,withthesupport ofChineserevolutionariesinexile,tried
to overthrow the Qing. The brief civil war that ensued was ended through a political compromise between Yuan Shikai,
the late Qing military strongman, and Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the Tongmenghui (United League). After the Qing
court transferred power to the newly founded republic, a provisional coalition governmentwas created along with
the National Assembly. However, political power of the new national government in Beijing was soon thereafter
monopolized by Yuan and led to decades of political division and warlordism, including several attempts at imperial
The Manchu conquest of China was a long period of war between the Qing Dynasty, established
by Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in Manchuria (contemporary Northeastern China), and the Ming Dynasty of China in the
south. In 1618,Aisin Gioro leader Nurhacicommissioned a document entitled the Seven Grievances in which he
enumerated seven grievances against the Ming and began to rebel against the domination of the Ming Dynasty. Many
of the grievances dealt with conflicts against Yehe, which was a major Manchu clan, and Ming favoritism of
Yehe. Nurhaci demanded the Ming pay tribute to him to redress the seven grievances and this was effectively a
declaration of war, as the Ming were not about to pay money to a former tributary. Shortly afterwards Nurhaci began
forcing the Ming out ofLiaoning in southern Manchuria.
The First Anglo-Chinese War (1839–42), known popularly as the First Opium War or simply the Opium War, was
fought between theUnited Kingdom and the Qing Dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic
relations, trade, and the administration of justice. Chinese officials wished to control the spread of opium, and
confiscated supplies of opium from British traders. The British government, although not officially denying China's
right to control imports, objected to this seizure and used its military power to violently enforce redress. In 1842,
the Treaty of Nanking—the first of what the Chinese later called the unequal treaties—granted an indemnity to Britain,
the opening of five treaty ports, and the cession of Hong Kong Island, thereby ending the trade monopoly of the Canton
System. The failure of the treaty to satisfy British goals of improved trade and diplomatic relations led to the Second
Opium War (1856–60). The war is now considered in China as the beginning of modern Chinese history Li Shizhen was one of the greatest Chinese herbalists and acupuncturists in history. His major contribution to medicine
was his 27-year work, which is found in his epic book the Bencao Gangmu (本草纲目 "Compendium of Materia
Medica"). He is also considered to be the greatest naturalist of China, and was very interested in the proper classification
of herb components. The book has details about more than 1,800 drugs (Chinese Medicine), including 1,100
illustrations and 11,000 prescriptions. It also described the type, form, flavor, nature and application in disease
treatments of 1,094 herbs.
Confucianism, The core of Confucianism is humanism, the belief that human beings are teachable, improvable and
perfectible through personal and communal endeavour especially including self-cultivation and self-creation.
Confucianism focuses on the cultivation of virtue and maintenance of ethics, the most basic of which are ren, yi,
and li. Ren is an obligation of altruism and humaneness for other individuals within a community, yi is the upholding
of righteousness and the moral disposition to do good, and li is a system of norms and propriety that determines how a
person should properly act within a community. Confucianism holds that one should give up one's life, if necessary,
either passively or actively, for the sake of upholding the cardinal moral values of ren and yi.
The Edo period (江戸時代 Edo jidai ), or Tokugawa period (徳川時代 Tokugawa jidai ) is the period between 1603
to 1868 in the history of Japanwhen Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's
300 regional Daimyo. The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social orders, isolationist foreign
policies, an increase in both environmental protection and popular enjoyment of arts and culture. The shogunate was
officially established in Edo on March 24, 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period came to an end with the Meiji
Restorationon May 3, 1868 after the fall of Edo.
Qing dynasty, over the course of its reign, the Qing became highly integrated with Chinese culture. The imperial
examinations continued and Han civil servants administered the empire alongside Manchu ones. The Qing reached its
height under the Qianlong Emperor in the eighteenth century, expanding beyond China's prior and later boundaries.
Imperial corruption exemplified by the minister Heshen and a series of rebellions, natural disasters, and defeats in wars
against European powers gravely weakened the Qing during the nineteenth century. "Unequal Treaties" provided
for extraterritoriality and removed large areas of treaty ports from Chinese sovereignty. The government attempts to
modernize during the Self-Strengthening Movement in the late 19th century yielded few lasting results. Losing the First